Can A Dog Be Trained To Go Potty Both Outdoors And Indoors?

Do you have a pet dog who you want to potty train? Many dog owners want to know if a dog can be trained to go potty both indoors and outdoors. It’s a serious question and needs an immediate answer.

Well! Yes, if you have just got a pup and want to potty train it, with some extra effort you can do it. Moreover, if you have an elderly dog with health issues, you are living in a sky-high apartment, or your puppy is too tiny for an outdoor dog toilet, you have the option of potty training your dog indoors.

Why Is It Important To Potty Train Your Dog?

Potty training is a necessary part of pet grooming. To live with human society, dogs must learn some essential behaviors, and potty training is one of them. Here’s a list of reasons that make this training a must to do for your canines.

1.To Keep Your House Clean
By training your dog in the right place to excrete, you keep your house clean from unexpected and hidden accidents. It also saves you from embarrassment in front of guests as your dog doesn’t poop randomly anywhere. It’ll know where its toilet is.

2.It’s A Healthy Practice
When your pet is not potty trained, it excretes anywhere in the house. Not only it attracts flies but also the bacteria in the poop cause many illnesses.
By giving your doggie proper training you keep yourself and your family safe.

3.Potty Pads Are A Comfortable Option
While training your puppy, you use potty pads. They are pads that you place under your dog to urinate and poop on. They have high absorbance and help you maintain a healthy environment.
Many are easy to wash and reusable. Besides, some are even disposable. So, it’s a pretty comfortable option to go with.

4.Saves You Some Bucks
Training pets for nature’s call at a specific spot saves you from the frustration of deep cleaning. You don’t need to call cleaners or send your carpets, rugs, or bed sheets for laundry. Hence in this way, you save money.

Therefore, we suggest you start training your puppies from an early stage for popping and urinating at the right place.

How To Potty Train Your Canine Inside The House?

Do you live in an apartment? Are you mostly at work and can’t take your puppy out for pooping outside? You can potty train your pup even at home. Though it’s a bit more challenging than outdoor toilet training as you have to replace the potty pads. With patience and consistency, it becomes easier. But the question is how’ll you do that? Let’s figure it out!

1.Finding The Right Place For Potty Pads
Get some potty pads for your dog. Yes! Allocate a specific area inside your house as your doggy’s toilet. Place a premium quality pee pad there. Take your pet to the location after it has eaten meals or drank enough water.
Upon reaching the site command your canine ” go potty” and wait for 4-5 minutes for your pet to poop. If it doesn’t excrete, take it back and repeat the process after 10-15 minutes. Make sure you don’t forget about it or else be ready for a surprise cleanup!

2.Rewarding The Pet
Use positive reinforcement. When the pet obeys your command, reward it with treats. It makes the training smooth and super exciting for the pooch.

3.Following A Routine
Besides, make a schedule. Take your pet to the designated indoor toilet daily at the same time. Doing this daily will help your canine remember the way to its toilet. When you are not around, finding the indoor toilet will not be a problem for the pet. When your pet is potty trained for the indoor toilet, start training it for the outside dog bathroom area.

Now you must be thinking about where to get an indoor potty mat for your canine. Right? Stop stressing your brain so much! We’ve come up with a list of the best potty pads for pooches. So let’s go!

Potty Pads For Your Canine Companion

We understand how difficult it is to find the right potty pad for your pet. That’s why after a lot of research, we’ve shared the top-notch super absorbent potty pads for your pet dog. Do check them out!

Dog Grass Pee Pad
  • Easy for potty training.

  • Two dog grass pee pads available for replacement.

  • Extra large potty tray – ideal for medium to large dogs.

  • Larger urine capacity with a bigger tray.

  • Perfect for homes and high-rise apartments that have no yard.

When it comes to choosing the best pet grass pee pad for your four-pawed furry companion, go for Loobani’s grass pee pad. It’s a perfect mat that you can install anywhere in your house to relieve your pooch. Besides, the grass gives a real feel to your pup. If you live in an apartment or it’s raining outside and you don’t want your puppy to go out, the pee pad is of great help.

The Loobani grass pee pad comes with a tray to collect the urine. So, you don’t need to clean the floor every time your naughty boy pees or poops. Simply, wash the pad, allow it to dry, and reuse it. Yes!! One of the biggest advantages of this pad is that it’s reusable. And one more amazing thing about the Loobani pee pad is that washes don’t affect the grass quality and it also enhances the look of your porch or balcony.

Many dog pee pads become stinky or less absorbing. But by choosing the Loobani grass pee pad, say bye-bye to bad odor. Its absorbance is also unmatchable. The grass mat is lightweight and portable. Besides, it keeps your pet’s paws dried after urination. Hence, preventing the mess in your house. In short, this dog potty system is just wow. You can check its video too.

Price: $16.99 – $115.99
Size: Multiple sizes. You can choose the one that best suits your pet.

Pros

Cons

Easy to wash and prevents leaks

 

The grass sheds off.

 

Can be installed anywhere in the house

 

Sometimes the pee odor doesn’t go away even with washing.

 

Can be used as a play mat

While playing, puppies can eat parts of the mat.

 

Doesn’t stink and is reusable

 

 

You can use it for your kitties as well.

 

 

Good for both indoor and outdoor use

 

 
Bulldogology Premium Puppy Pee Pads with Adhesive Sticky Tape (24x24) Large Dog Training Wee Pads with 6 Layer Extra Quick Dry Bullsorbent Polymer Tech (100-Count, White)
  • Easy for potty training.

  • 6 LAYER ABSORBENT

  • ADHESIVE STICKY TAPE

  • ODOR CONTROL

  • BUILT-IN ATTRACTANT

  • 110% MONEYBACK GUARANTEED

Suppose you are at work and upon returning home you see that your doggy has pooped on the carpet. It is the most horrible nightmare ever. Right? To avoid such incidents, you potty train your pet.

With the help of bulldogology pee pads, the process has now become even smoother. You might be thinking what is special about these pads? Come on! Let’s explore together!

Bulldogology pads have incredible absorbency. The liquid that your dog excretes quickly changes into the gel. In this way, it keeps the floor dry and clean. These pads come with optional sticky tape to keep them in place.

The Bulldogology premium puppy pee pads have a pretty innovative six-layer design. The top layer is of attractant fiber. Then comes the odor-neutralizing layer. Besides, the Bullsorbent polymer technology and ultra sorbet gel layer keep the liquid locked. Lastly, is the leakproof layer that prevents leaks.

The dog pads are super easy to handle and even the fully soaked ones don’t drip. They come in different sizes such as standard, medium, large, and extra-large. Besides, the number of pads per pack also varies. Now, the company has also introduced charcoal Bulldogology premium pads to enhance the odor-locking potential.

Do you know what makes these pads so wanted? Upon buying 2 boxes of large 100-count pads you get 10% off. When you purchase 3 or more boxes, you get 15% off. Additionally, you also get a money-back guarantee if you didn’t like the product. Isn’t it amazing?

Price: $ 41.57 (regular)
Size: Regular is 24 X 24 inches and extra-large is 24 X 35 inches
Color: White

Pros

Cons

It’s completely leak proof

A bit expensive

Easy to lift the soaked pad off the ground

 

The sticky tape leaves marks on the floor

Durable

 

 

Ultra absorbance

 

 

The diagnosis and treatment of fever caused by otitis externa

Abstract

Otitis externa is a common disease of the ear canal in dogs and cats, especially in the hot, rainy summer, more prone to infection, sometimes accompanied by auricle disease or otitis media. It often causes the affected animal ear itching, ear pinna and ear canal erythema, ear secretion (earwax) excessive and smelly, severe may be purulent and stink, and even hyperplasia blocked ear canal. This case was presented with fever by otitis externa, which is rare. Through the analysis and report of this case, looking for the regularity of otitis external, analyzes the pathogenic factors of otitis shallow such as parasites, fungi, bacteria, foreign bodies, etc., understands the characteristics and frequency of the incidence of otitis external in dogs and cats, studies and discusses treatment plans, and provides help for clinical diagnosis and treatment of otitis external in dogs and cats.
Key words:Canine,otitis externata ,fever,ear mites

The diagnosis and treatment of fever caused by otitis externa

Basic information

Name: A JIN
Breed: Golden Retriever
Sex: Male (no-castrated)
Age:2 months old
Body weight:4.5 kg
The owner feeds him at home without contact with other animals and humans. Bought from the pet shop one week ago, the dog appeared to have shortness of breath, loss of appetite, and weakness. The owner found it in a low spirit than usual. So decided to take him to the hospital. Vaccination history still needs to be completed.

Physical examination:

Body weight 4.5 kg, temperature 39.9℃, respiratory rate was 90/min、, heart rate:20 beats/min. Heavy and unclear murmurs in breathing. Mouth mucosa was pink, capillary refill time(CRT)=2s, and body condition score(BCS)was 5/9, which can touch the ribs in palpation. The patient presented with mild depression situation. Overall, the hair is dry, with mild dandruff, mild flushing in both ears, a small amount of dry cerumen, and a normal auricle. The dehydration was evaluated at 5%. In palpation, the rate of the femoral artery was equal to the heart rate.

Laboratory examination
Complete Blood Count (CBC) examination

Project

Result

Reference Range

WBC

18.2×103/uL

6.0~17.0

RBC

5.97×106/uL

5.5~10

HGB

2.8g/dL

12.0~18.0

HCT

35.4%

37~55

MCV

60.2fL

60~77

MCH

19.2pg

19~24.5

MCHC

32.5g/dL

30~37

PLT

225×103/uL

200~500

LYM%

7.9%

12~30

OTHR%

92.4%

60~86

EO%

4.4%

2~10

LYM#

0.4×103/uL

 

OTHR#

12.6×103/uL

 

EO#

0.3×103/uL

 

Interpretation:There was a mild increased in the WBC and OTHER%. Red blood cell count is normal. 

Idexx Catalyst biochemistry CHEM17

Project

Result

Reference Range

ALB

2.8g/dL

2.3-4.0

ALT

102U/L

10-100

ALKP

200U/L

23-212

AMYL

643U/L

500-1500

BUN/CREA

10

 

UREA

7.1mg/dL

7-27

CREA

1.7mg/dL

0.5-1.8

GGT

0U/L

0-7

LIPA

553U/L

200-1800

PHOS

0.97mg/dL

2.5-6.8

TP

6.5g/dL

5.2-8.2

TBIL

<2mg/dL

0-15

GLOB

3.0g/dL

2.5-4.5

ALB/GLOB

1.0

 

GLU

5.85mg/dL

74-143

CHOL

3.43mmol/L

2.84-8.26

CA

2.50mmol/L

1.98-3

Interpretation: There was a noticeable increase in ALT, which is a cue for the cell injury.No apparent abnormalities in other biochemical indicators.

The result of the CRP testing

Project

Result

Reference Range

CRP

40 mg/L

<10mg/L

Interpretation: The result of CRP was higher than usual.

The PCR result of infectious examination

The microscope and otoscopy of ears
The diagnosis and treatment of fever caused by otitis externa
Picture 1.There were a lot of Malassezia in ear canal secretion cytology, but no bacteria and white blood cells was seen.

Picture 2.Hand-held otoscopy showed flushing of the ear canal wall, a small amount of earwax, a crawling ear itch mite, and an intact eardrum

Diagnosis

Canine otitis externa, Malassezia infection, ear mite infection

The diagnosis methods in Canine otitis externa usually used in veterinary clinical consist of the physical examination findings or history, laboratory examination such as complete blood count, cytology of ear canal, and otoscopy.

Some clinical signs are common, such as afebrile, alopecia, central nervous system(CNS), cutaneous crusts, ulcers, dermatitis, hematoma of the ear, pain, head shaking, pruritus, and fever.The main etiology is malassezia spp. And the breed predilection includes:

  • An American cocker spaniel.
  • Gold retriever.
  • English springer spaniel.
  • Labrador retriever.
  • Wachtelunhd.
  • Welsh springer spaniel.
  • Wirehaired is pointing to griffin.

There is no sex predilection in this disease. Fever is not a common symptom of this disease. After excluding the usual infectious disease, it was considered acute inflammation in this case. And the fever was controlled after the treatment.

Treatment

SPECIFIC THERAPY
Treatment of related causes

Specific treatments must be made for related causes (e.g., ear mites, atopic reactions, food allergies, hypothyroidism, immune-mediated diseases, keratosis disorders, etc.), significant, and persistent factors.
1、Clean the ear with Chlorhexidine twice a day
2、Oridermyl(nystatin) after cleaning the ear for external using
3、Amoxicillin clavulanic acid 20mg/kg q.d
4、0.9%NaCL 150ML for subcutaneous injection

Tips:

Ear Cleaning

Ear canal cleaning is an essential step in the treatment of otitis externa. Debris in the ear canal can disable some topical medications; Prevent drugs from touching the external auditory canal; And prevent a complete evaluation of the tympanum. Residue protects microbes, perpetuates infections, and contains bacterial toxins, pro-inflammatory mediators, and free fatty acids that stimulate inflammation. If there is only a small or moderate amount of debris and the tympanum is intact, you can teach the owner to clean the ear at home with a mild copper solution/desiccant. Fill the ear canal with the solution and massage for 60 seconds. Then let the pet shake its head to help remove excess solution and debris. Tissue or cotton ball can wipe the residual solution and debris on the ear canal and auricle. Do not use cotton swabs at home, as they can push debris deep into the horizontal ear canal. If a large amount of waste is present or the tympanum cannot be assessed, deep ear cleaning is necessary for the patient under sedation or general anesthesia. Sedation or anesthesia is usually required for a thorough, deep ear cleaning and to obtain an ideal sample for cytology and culture. Deep ear irrigation is performed by looking directly into the ear canal through an otoscope. Earrings, a light bulb syringe, a red rubber catheter attached to the needle, and a tomcat catheter can all be used to remove debris from the root canal. Deep ear cleaning must be done carefully to avoid damage to the ear canal and tympanum. If the tympanum is ruptured, it can be rinsed with warm saline or water.

The choice of ear cleaner:

Wax-dissolving agents are surfactants and detergents emulating waxes and lipids, thereby facilitating their removal. Common sulfur-dissolvers include sodium dioctyl (DSS), calcium sulfosuccinate, squalene, propylene glycol, peroxide carbamate, hexamethyl carbon tetrachloride, and glycerol. Many sulfur-dissolving agents are ototoxic and should not be used when the tympanic cavity ruptures. A study that evaluated four different sulfur-dissolving agents showed that squalene-containing washes did not cause proliferative ear disease. The other three products stopped triethanolamine, propylene glycol, or DSS, which caused proliferative changes when left in the middle ear. Rinsing the ear canal with water or saline after using the sulfur-dissolving agent can help reduce ototoxicity.

Desiccant is usually added to the solution. They include boric acid, salicylic acid, benzoic acid, acetic acid, lactic acid, and malic acid. Desiccant lowers the pH of the ear, causes keratosis, and has a slight antibacterial effect. The antibacterial activity is related to the presence of isopropyl alcohol, chloromethyl (PCMX), and the low pH of the solution. Chlorhexidine also has antibacterial effects. Tris-EDTA makes antibiotics more effective by inducing changes in membrane permeability. Tris-EDTA is also effective against many Malassezia isolates, and chelating agents can enhance the effectiveness of antifungal agents. In addition to treating bacterial infections, studies have shown that some cleaners are very active against Malassezia, including CleanAural Dog®, Epi-Otic®, MalAcetic Aural®, Sancerum®, and TrizUltra+Keto.

Topical Therapy

Antifungal drugs: commonly used medications include clotrimazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, Posaconazole, thiabendazole, nystatin, etc. In one study, 80% of yeast were sensitive to miconazole and econazole but moderately resistant to ketoconazole. Another study assessing the sensitivity of M. pachyderma to miconazole and clotrimazole indicated that the bacterium was unlikely to develop clinically relevant resistance.

Systemic Therapy

Anti-inflammatory drugs: Systemic glucocorticoids are beneficial in cases of severe inflammation or edema of the ear canal and are used in a proliferative response that causes lumen obstruction. Prednisone can be administered 0.5-1 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks and then tapered off with oclacitinib (Apoquel®) administered in conjunction with topical combination products shows promise in the treatment of otitis externally in allergic dogs.

The symptoms of breath have been a relief after seven days of therapy

The diagnosis and treatment of fever caused by otitis externa

Conclusion

Definition and signalment

One of the most common ailments in dogs in veterinary practice is ear disease. From mild erythema to severe otitis media, about 15 to 20 percent of dog patients and about 6 to 7 percent of cat patients have some ear disease. In humid climates, the incidence of otitis media in dogs is close to 50%. It is estimated that more than half of dogs with chronic recurrent otitis externa also have otitis media. Determining the cause of ear disease is often a difficult task. Currently, it is believed that there is only one kind of ear pruritus mite parasitic on dogs and cats, namely canine ear pruritus mite. The insect body was elliptic, the size of male mites was 0.274 — 0.362mm, and that of female mites was 0.345 — 0.451mm.

Mouthparts are short and conical. There are four pairs of long feet. The ends of each couple of feet of male mites and the first and second pairs of feet of female mites have suckers with handles. The handles are short and have no nodes. The fourth pair of female mite feet is underdeveloped and cannot extend out of the body edge. The tubercles at the posterior end of the male mite body were underdeveloped. Each tubercle had four long, four short, and four bristles, and there were two obscure anal suckers in front of the tubercles. The egg is white and oval; one side is relatively straight, the length between 166 — 206um. The development of pruritus auricularia is incomplete metamorphosis, which goes through four stages: egg, larva, nymph, and adult—Parasitic on the surface of the skin and the external ear canal. After mating, the female produces eggs, which adhere to the ear canals of dogs and cats by laying secretions.

Depending on the temperature of the environment, the time it takes for the mite to develop from egg to adult varies. It takes 13 to 15 days in the warm season and three weeks in the cold season. The survival time of pruritus auricularia was longer when the relative humidity was higher. The mite can survive for months at a temperature of 35 degrees Celsius and a relative humidity of 80%. Animals can also become infected through indirect contact with the ear itch mite that lives in the environment. Ear mites, parasitic dogs, and cats generally have foul ears. Dogs always keep scratching the ear, ear wax in particular. The severe inner ear has the phenomenon of redness and fever, light, not redness and fever. Generally, big-eared dogs, lop-eared dogs, and long-eared dogs are more common. Ear itch mites mainly cause ear canal mite infections in dogs and cats. As shown in Figure 2, the ear canal of infected animals is pruritus severely, which often scratches the outer ear, face, and neck. It is contagious, and severe cases may lead to otitis media. Secondly, as shown in FIG. 3, scabies infestation will result in the outer ear margin’s proliferation and increased dander. The female mite digs a tunnel, burrows into the skin, and lays eggs in the tunnel after finding the right site, which will cause extreme itching, sleep, food insecurity, increased dander, rough coat, and often secondary bacterial infection.

Prognosis

Patients treated for otitis externa need to be revisited frequently, and the ear cytology evaluated to determine if a change in treatment is required. Major factors must be adequately controlled. Otherwise, otitis will recur. Common causes of treatment failure include failure to identify and address significant and persistent factors; Improper ear cleaning; Inappropriate treatment; Treatment time is not enough.

Otitis exterior in dogs and cats is one of the most common clinical cases. Over-intensive pet rearing, abuse of antibiotics, and excessive nutrition intake are the reasons for the increasing incidence of otitis exterior is in dogs and cats. The peak season of otitis exteriors is summer, and there is no significant difference in the incidence of otitis exterior in dogs and cats. According to clinical statistics, the leading causes of the disease were mites, fungi, and bacteria infection; mites were infected with ear drops stolen, ivermectin injection had a noticeable effect, and yellow cedar extract has a dangerous impact, fungal drugs itraconazole, clotrimazole, and ketoconazole had a good product, and drugs with good antibacterial effect included cephalosporins and aminoglycosides.

Canine viral enteritis

Abstract

Canine parvovirus enteritis is one of the most deadly and common canine intestinal diseases worldwide. Widespread in the environment, it can be carried by uninfected hosts and eventually spread to dogs. Canine parvovirus vaccination effectively induces protective immunity in most dogs, but early vaccination may make puppies more susceptible to the virus by interfering with maternal antibodies. Current treatments include fluid rehydration, nutritional support, antiemetics, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and empiric deworming. Although inpatient care remains the gold standard, success rates have been recorded for more than 80% of patients treated on an outpatient basis.
Keywords: Virus; Inflammatory bowel disease. Immune; In the hospital

Basic information

Name: mango
Breed: beagle
Sex: Male (not-castrated)
Age:8 months old
Body weight:19.0kg
History: outdoor activities, no vaccination, no deworming,
The owner fed him for about one week and took him to the countryside. No playing with other animals at that time. Days in the past, the dog began to seem lethargic and weak. The owner found it vomited after feeding and then began to present with diarrhea. So decided to take her to the sanatorium. Vaccinate history is not completed.No deworming this year.

The feces before therapy

The feces before therapy

The feces before therapy

Physical examination

Body weight 19.0kg, temperature 38.6℃, respiratory rate was 45/min、heart rate:108 beats/min.No prominent murmurs in breathing and cardiophony. Mouth mucosa was pale, capillary refill time(CRT)=2s、body condition score(BCS)was 5/9, which cannot touch the ribs in palpation. The patient presented with depression, a dry coat, and a nose. Abdominal palpation turned into no outstanding atypical locating within the stomach. Dehydration was assessed to 7%, and palpation of arteria cruralis is weak.

Laboratory examination
Complete Blood Count (CBC) examination for Day 1

Project

Result

Reference Range

RBC

6.8410^6/uL

5.5~8.5

HCT

68.4%

39~56

HGB

162g/dL

110~190

MCV

67.7fL

62~72

MCH

23.7pg

20~25

MCHC

350g/dL

300~380

WBC

6.2×10^3/L

6~17

GRANS

65.0×10^3/L

60~83

%GRANS

84.5%

84.5%

L/M

3.3×10^9/L

1.5-7.8

% L/M

9.2%

9.2%

PLT

340 k/μL

117~460

Interpretation: No obvious abnormality was observed in the leukocyte line. A mild higher HCT indicates consistency with the performance of dehydration. The loss of body fluid and insufficient water intake may be the reasons.

Idexx Catalyst biochemistry CHEM15

Project

Unit

Reference Range

Result

ALP

U/L

23-212

235

ALT

U/L

10-125

58

BUN

mmol/L

2.5-9.6

5.5

Ca

mmol/L

1.98-3.00

2.75

CRE

umol/L

44-159

85

GGT-γ

U/L

1-10

2

GLU

mmol/L

4.11-7.94

6.28

TP

g/L

52-82

69

TBIL

umol/L

0-15

10

ALB

g/L

23-40

31

TCHO

mmol/L

2,84-8.27

5.24

PHOS

mmol/L

0.81-2.19

1.65

GLOB

g/L

25-45

52

ALB/GLOB

  

0.4

BUN/CRE

  

20

Interpretation: There was a slight increase in globulin and ALP. The rise in the globulin may be due to the immune reaction by the agent, and the growth of the ALP may be due to the young age.No apparent abnormalities in other biochemical indicators.

The result of the CRP testing

Project

Result

Reference Range

CRP

63.01mg/L

<10mg/L

Interpretation: The increased CRP significantly indicates the existence of severe acute inflammation or tissue cell damage.

Blood agglutination test

Project

Result

Reference Range

APTT

22

15-43

PT

10.2

5-16

Microscope of the blood gas

Project

Unit

Reference Range

Result

PH

7.477

7.31~7.42

pCO2

mmHg

35.8

32.0~49.0

HCO3-

%

24.5

20.0~29.0

Na+

Mmol/L

146.4

144.0~160.0

K+

Mmol/L

3.56

3.5~5.8

Cl+

Mmol/L

110.0

109.0~122.0

BE(B)

Mmol/L

2.2

-8.5-3

t CO2

Mmol/L

25.6

21.0~31.0

AnGap

 

15.4

13~20

The PCR result of infectious examination

Project

Result

CCV

(-)

CDV

(-)

CPV

(+)

Diagnosis

Canine parvovirus infection
According to the chief complaint, incomplete immunization, vomiting, diarrhea, and other infectious diseases are the primary direction of consideration. In addition to screening for small dogs, screening for another contagious diseases is also recommended if the patient did not experience recovery after treatment, such as distemper and canine crest. After excluding infectious diseases, consider other disease directions, such as pancreatitis, intestinal foreign body, hepatitis, etc.

Treatment

Canine viral enteritis

1.Antimicrobial therapy: Ampicillin 22 mg/kg IV q 8 hrs
Antimicrobial agents are recommended when peripheral neutropenia increases the risk of sepsis and bacteria may translocate on damaged intestinal epithelium. Broad-spectrum antibiotics provide aerobic and anaerobic coverage.
2.Nutritional therapy: gastrointestinal recuperation diets
Early enteral nutritional support promotes intestinal cell recovery. In one study, patients showed improvement in weight gain after receiving nutrition (through a gastroesophageal feeding tube) 12 hours after admission; with Quick resolution of vomiting and diarrhea; Compared with patients who ate 12 hours after vomiting stopped, appetite and behavior returned to average earlier.
3.Analgesic therapy:lidocaine at 30μg/kg/min IV CRI
Patients with CPV infection often have visceral pain. Consider lidocaine with 30µg/kg/min IV CRI in combination with a partial mu agonist (e.g., Buprenorphine 0.01 mg/kg IV q for 8 hours). Avoid opioids, as they may cause intestinal obstruction in the doses necessary to provide pain relief.
4.Liquid therapy:LRS + 0.9% NaCl solution(1:1) 50mL/kg ivgtt
Fluid therapy is one of the essential components of supportive care. It is usually treated with intravenous fluids. The choice of initial juice is to balance isovadose bodies such as lactate Ringer’s solution. An isotonic fluid is administered at a rate that corrects dehydration; Material maintenance requirements; And makes up for the ongoing losses, which can be high in vomiting and diarrhea. Colloidal solutions can be used for refractory hypovolemia, hypoproteinemia, and intestinal edema
5.Anti-virus therapy:w-interferon 10mg/kg s.c q24hrs
Besides, oseltamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor used in dogs with CPV infection; However, there is no clear therapeutic benefit. In a randomized clinical trial of 35 affected dogs treated with oseltamivir, there was no significant change in white blood cell counts. Although there was a significant decrease in white blood cell counts in the placebo-treated dogs, no difference was found in clinical outcomes.
The treatment of parvo-viral enteritis is mainly supportive until the clinical symptoms of vomiting and diarrhea are resolved. In general, improvements in clinical symptoms usually correspond to a rebound in white blood cell counts; However, the presence of adverse sequelae, such as aspiration pneumonia, persistent hypoglycemia, and hypoproteinemia with edema or intussusception, can lead to higher morbidity and more extended hospital stays.
The most aggressive treatment involves intravenous fluids to restore intravascular fluid volume status, replace interstitial fluid loss, and maintain good hydration, which is the gold standard for CPV therapy. Adjuvant therapy, in the form of antiemetics and gastric protectors, minimizes fluid loss, provides analgesia and nutrition, and prevents secondary bacterial infections caused by antibiotics, which are also essential factors in obtaining the best prognosis for diseased animals. Fluid therapy begins with the establishment of vascular access.
In addition to fluid therapy and enteral nutrition, antiemetics are essential in reducing vomiting in CPV-infected animals.
Animals with CPV enteritis are at high risk of bacterial translocation due to the collapse of intestinal villi and lack of protective immune function. Various bacteria (E. coli, Clostridium difficult, Salmonella) have been documented in septic animals with CPV enteritis. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are recommended for all diseased animals affected by CPV.
Enteral nutrition is essential to help prevent intestinal cell atrophy and provide nutrients needed for healing. Early enteral nutrition reduced morbidity and length of hospital stay in puppies with CPV enteritis.

Canine viral enteritis
Picture 3.The spirit of the patient after therapy,we can see he can eat and drink without  vomit
Canine viral enteritis
Picture 4.The feces during therapy,the symptom of the diarrhea get better

The examination during the therapy

The flowing testing by Complete Blood Count (CBC) examination after therapy

Project

Result

Reference Range

DAY  1

DAY  3

DAY  6

RBC

6.8410^6/uL

4.910^6/uL

6.2510^6/uL

5.5~8.5

HCT

68.4%

46.2%

42.3%

39~56

HGB

162g/dL

16.2g/dL

14.7g/dL

110~190

MCV

67.7fL

68.0fL

67.7fL

62~72

MCH

23.7pg

23.9pg

23.5pg

20~25

MCHC

350g/dL

35.1g/dL

34.8g/dL

300~380

WBC

6.2×10^3/L

4.910^3/L

18.710^3/L

6~17

GRANS

65.0×10^3/L

7510^3/L

82.310^3/L

60~83

%GRANS

84.5%

63.2%

82.4%

 

L/M

3.3×10^9/L

1.210^9/L

2.410^9/L

1.5-7.8

% L/M

9.2%

23.5%

15.4%

 

PLT

340 k/μL

409 k/μL

324 k/μL

117~460

The flowing testing by CRP examination after therapy

Project

Result

Reference Range(mg/L )

DAY 1

63.01 mg/L

<10

DAY 6

27.62 mg/L

<10

Conclusion

Canine viral enteritis

One of the main challenges and limiting factors pet owners face in part therapy is the cost of hospitalization and treatment. Cases of parvoviral enteritis have been documented in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas, showing that economic conditions such as lack of education and vaccination may put these puppies at higher risk of contracting the disease. Whether to send a sick animal to a hospital for standard gold treatment, outpatient treatment, or euthanasia depends mainly on the client’s ability and willingness to pay for care.
The incubation period of CPV infection is about 7-14 days. Possible abnormalities with rapidly progressing clinical symptoms include lethargy, depression, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea (usually profuse and hemorrhagic), fever, dehydration, tachycardia, tachypnea, dyspnea, abdominal pain, weak pulse, prolonged capillary refill time, altered mental status, and seizures. Complications such as hypovolemia, DIC, sepsis, thromboembolic disease, intussusception, congestive heart failure, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, shock, and death may occur.CPV infection is most common in puppies under six months of age; However, unvaccinated dogs of any age can develop clinical diseases. CPV is uncommon in adult dogs. Breeds at increased risk of CPV infection include Rottweilers, Dobermans, Labrador retrievers, American Staffordshire Terriers, and Arctic sled dogs. In one study, purebred dogs had a higher chance than mixed-breed dogs. There’s no record of sexual orientation.
Virus shed in the feces of subclinically infected feral and domestic dogs can be a potential source of infection for other dogs, especially in crowded or unsanitary conditions such as shelters or breeding kennels. Disinfection of environmental surfaces with 0.75% sodium hypochlorite solution can effectively reduce the spread of CPV in crowded canine areas such as animal hospitals and shelters. The only way to prevent infection is to isolate puppies at risk.
It is most important to educate clients to avoid contact between high-risk puppies and other dogs until they have undergone a complete vaccination program, as well-vaccinated adult dogs with normal feces may still expel CPV and be a potential source of exposure. It needs to be emphasized that vaccination is essential to prevent CPV infection. The American Animal Hospital Association considers the canine parvovirus vaccine a core vaccine. Get vaccinated. The modified live vaccine was given as early as six weeks of age and continued every 2-4 weeks until at least 16 weeks. The last vaccine in the series should be given at 16 weeks of age to avoid interference from maternal antibodies with the CPV-2b containing vaccine that produces immunity against CPV-2a and CPV-2c. For further information on canine parvovirus vaccination, see the AAHA’s 2022 Canine Vaccination Guidelines. In shelters and animal hospitals, staff should always wash their hands carefully and wear new gloves for each patient. Clothing, instruments, and the environment, such as thermometers, stethoscopes, infusion pumps, tables, cages, and cushions, should be carefully cleaned and disinfected regularly with cleaners and disinfectants that effectively inactivate CPVS.
For any diarrhoeal and sick animal, even if the feces are ELISA negative, isolation should be carried out while handling the ill animal by wearing special disposable gloves, hats, protective clothing, and boots to prevent cross-contamination and the spread of infection.
The prognosis for survival usually depends on the severity of clinical symptoms at the start of treatment. Clinical manifestations include hypovolemia, hypoperfusion, fever, low C-protein levels, elevated cortisol levels, and low thyroxine levels. Lymphocyte counts less than 1000/mL, hypoalbuminemia, associated with increased mortality, lymphocytic decline on admission, and hypoalbuminemia, associated with a prolonged hospital stay.
Overall, the survival prognosis is between 60 and 90 percent, depending on the study, the type of treatment, and the response of the individual diseased animal to treatment. Comorbidities such as canine coronavirus and gastrointestinal parasites also increase morbidity and mortality among infected animals. Recent outpatient strategies improve outcomes when clients’ financial constraints prevent hospitalization and aggressive care. Without treatment, the prognosis is grim, with mortality occurring in over 90% of infected animals.

Diagnosis and treatment of abnormal antidiuretic hormone secretion syndrome (SIADH) secondary to head trauma in dog

Abstract

A1.5 year patient was bitten on the head by another dog and underwent simple trauma treatment in another hospital. After returning home two days later, the patient showed symptoms of weakness, vomiting, screaming, and muscle tremor on the second day after returning home and came to our hospital for treatment. Basic laboratory tests and radiographs revealed skull fractures, anemia, hyponatremia, and low plasma osmotic pressure. The initial diagnosis was hyponatremia due to abnormal vasopressin secretion syndrome (SIADH). Water restriction, anti-inflammatory, analgesia, and equalizing fluid infusion were then administered. The dog recovered after less than three days of treatment. This case needs to educate our clinical veterinarians about SIADH. Especially for the presence of severe head trauma, primary or secondary encephalopathy, and other conditions, in addition to the need to treat the primary disease, but also to pay attention to the monitoring of electrolytes to prevent the occurrence of severe electrolyte disorders may have more critical significance for the prognosis and outcome of the disease.

Key words:Head trauma, Abnormal antidiuretic hormone secretion syndrome (SIADH), Hyponatremia.

Diagnosis and treatment of abnormal antidiuretic hormone secretion syndrome (SIADH) secondary to head trauma in dog

Basic information

Name: XIAO QI

BreedWelsh Corgi

SexMale (not-castrated)

Age1.5 years old

Body weight10.8kg

Historyoutdoor activities, no vaccination, no deworming, vaginal bleeding one year ago 
The owner feeds her at home this year. She was not playing outdoors during this time. Three days ago, she was bitten on the head by an adult dog at home with three injuries and bleeding. She was sent to the hospital near her home for simple trauma hemostasis treatment, followed by iodophor disinfection treatment for two days, during which the diet and defecation were OK. On the evening of the third day at home, she showed symptoms such as decreased mental appetite, weak lying on her side, vomiting, screaming, and occasional muscle tremor. She came to our hospital for a diagnosis and treatment. Vaccinate history is uncompleted.No deworming this year.

Physical examination

Body weight10.8kg, temperature 38.4℃, respiratory rate was 45/min、heart rate:120 beats/min.No prominent murmurs in breathing and cardiophony. Mouth mucosa was pink, capillary refill time(CRT)<2s, and body condition score(BCS)was 4/9, which can touch the ribs in palpation. The patient presented with depression. Abdominal palpation was no prominent abnormal finding in the abdomen. There were mild dental calculus and gingivitis in an oral examination. Multiple areas of skin were soft. Apparent dehydration was not found. There were three traumatic scabs on the head, mild diffuse swelling of the skin on the top of the head, warm and sensitive on palpation, and no apparent abnormalities were found during auscultation.

Laboratory examination
Complete Blood Count (CBC) examination

Project

Result

Reference Range

WBC

16.9

6-17×109/L

RBC

3.06

5.5-8.5×1012/L

HGB

70

120-180g/L

HCT

23.6

37-55%

MCV

77.1

66-77fL

MCH

22.9

19.9-24.5pg

MCHC

297

300-360g/L

PLT

328

200-500×109/L

LYM%

5.6

12-30%

OTHR%

82.1

60-77%

EO%

12.3

2-10%

Interpretation: The CBC result showed apparent anemia in the dog, mainly related to bleeding caused by the trauma. The total number of white blood cells was near the upper limit, the lymphocyte count was reduced, the neutrophil count was increased, and the eosinophilic granulocyte was increased, suggesting the presence of stress images or potential infection.

Idexx Catalyst biochemistry CHEM15

Project

Result

Reference Range

ALT

130

12-130

ALKP

100

14-111

TBIL

12

0-15

AMYL

782

500-1500

BUN

5.3

2.5-9.6

CREA

56

44-159

ALB

28

25-46

PHOS

1.1

1.0-2.42

TP

70

57-89

GLU

6.8

4.11-8.4

GLOB

49

28-51

Ca

2.60

1.95-2.83

Interpretation:There was normal result of the biochemistry,so further case of this disease had to find by the other examination.

The result of the CRP testing

Project

Result

Reference Range

CRP

49.2mg/L

<20mg/L

Interpretation:The result of CRP was higher than the normal range which infer the existence of acute inflammatory.

Blood agglutination test

Project

Result

Reference Range

APTT

16.8

15-43

PT

10.2

5-16

Interpretation:The result of blood agglutination test was normal,the function of blood coagulation may be normal,the outcome should be evaluated in conjunction with other examination result.

The test of common viral infectious diseases in dogs

Project

Result

Reference Range

CDV-Ag

0.37(negative)

<1 COI

CPV-Ag

0.31(negative)

<1 COI

CCV-Ag

0.34(negative)

<1 COI

The result of the electrolyte test

Project

Result

Reference Range

pH value

7.394

7.25-7.40

pCO2

29.4

33-51mmHg

HCO3-act

17.5

13-25mmol/L

Na+

124

139-150mmol/L

K+

3.2

3.0-4.2mmol/L

Cl-

98

106-127mmol/L

AnGap

12

10-27

Osmotic pressure

253.5

280-310mOsm/kg

Interpretation:The low value with pCO2,Na+,K+,Cl-and osmotic pressure was a indicated to Hyponatremia, hypochloremia, mild hypokalemia

The X-ray of the head
Diagnosis and treatment of abnormal antidiuretic hormone secretion syndrome (SIADH) secondary to head trauma in dog

Picture 1. Right lateral of the head
Interpretation: The subcutaneous tissue of the head thickened, and the opacity increased. Suggests skull fracture, suspected inflammation, or edema of surrounding tissue

Diagnosis

Hyponatremia, hypochloremia, and mild hypokalemia through clinical examination and auxiliary examination, the following problems were found in the dog:
(1) Skull fracture, the possibility of intracranial injury can not be ruled out, which needs further examination and diagnosis
(2) hyponatremia, hypochloremia, low plasma osmotic pressure
(3) Anemia, combined with the physical signs of the dogs, is the primary consideration of hemorrhage.
The animal was considered normal hydration status with no evidence of fluid overload (e.g., serous nasal discharge, tachypnea, tachycardia, peripheral edema, etc.). Although biochemical indicators and adrenal and thyroid function screening were not performed, kidney disease, hypoadrenocorticism function, and hypothyroidism could be temporarily ruled out, considering the age of the animals and the absence of related history before the trauma. Although the dog had gastric effusion, the amount was small, and there was no significant fluid loss (vomiting only once, no diarrhea). Combined with the physical examination, there was no fluid or deficiency.
In conclusion, the dog affected the central nervous system due to head trauma, resulting in abnormal vasopressin secretion, which resulted in severe hyponatremia with low plasma osmotic pressure in the body. A preliminary diagnosis was made of abnormal vasopressin secretion syndrome (SIADH) secondary to head trauma. However, the intracranial condition is unclear and needs further examination by advanced imaging.

Treatment

1. Analgesia: lidocaine. loading dose of 2mg/kg i.v at first, and then 5% lidocaine(dilution of normal saline 1mL:1kg),1.6mL/h CRI;
2. Hyponatremia correction: 0.9% NaCl ivgtt 2mL/h;
3. Antacid management:omeprazole 1mg/kg p.o bid;
4. Anti-inflammatory: Amoxicillin clavulanate potassium 20mg/kg s.c QD
5. Relieve the edema of the brain: furosemide 1mg/kg p.o QD
The target of the treatment was stabilizing the body condition, correcting electrolyte disturbance, controlling clinical symptoms, and then further diagnosis and treatment in this case. During the therapy, the patient was presented with intermittently on its side and the extensor muscles. The patient’s symptoms are relived by treating sedation and diuretic and correcting the body fluid equilibrium. Still, the owner abandoned to take a further diagnosis and took him home, so the follow-up monitoring was a failure, but the recent follow-up with the patient’s situation was good.

Diagnosis and treatment of abnormal antidiuretic hormone secretion syndrome (SIADH) secondary to head trauma in dog

Conclusion

Abnormal antidiuretic hormone secretion syndrome (SIADH) is a rare hormonal disorder in dogs because antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is not inhibited by hypotonic extracellular fluid, resulting in water retention and dilutive hyponatremia. Clinically, this disorder is characterized by severe hyponatremia, low osmotic pressure, inappropriate urine concentration, and high urinary sodium excretion. Hypotonic hyponatremia has been widely described as the most common electrolyte imbalance in the hospital setting. At the same time, SIADH is known to be the most common cause of symptomatic hyponatremia and is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality.
Diagnostic criteria for SIADH include hyponatremia (<140mmol/L[<140mEq/L]), hypoosmotic pressure (<290mmol/kg[<290mOsm/kg]), urinary hyperostosis (>100mmol/kg[>100mOsm/kg]), and elevated urinary sodium concentration (>20mmol/kg[> > 20mEq/L]), other diagnostic criteria include regular hydration, and normal renal, adrenal, and thyroid function. This case had significant hyponatremia (124mmol/L) and low osmotic pressure (253.5mOsm/kg). Although urine osmotic pressure and sodium concentration could not be obtained due to the limitation of the urinalysis equipment, combined with the history and physical examination, the possibility of other diseases was very low, and a preliminary diagnosis of SIADH was made. At the same time, we can easily suspect the disease through the differential diagnosis list of hyponatremia (table below).
Abnormal antidiuretic hormone secretion syndrome (SIADH) is a rare hormonal disorder in dogs because antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is not inhibited by hypotonic extracellular fluid, resulting in water retention and dilutive hyponatremia. Clinically, this disorder is characterized by severe hyponatremia, low osmotic pressure, inappropriate urine concentration, and high urinary sodium excretion. Hypotonic hyponatremia has been widely described as the most common electrolyte imbalance in the hospital setting. At the same time, SIADH is known to be the most common cause of symptomatic hyponatremia and is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality.
Diagnostic criteria for SIADH include hyponatremia (<140mmol/L[<140mEq/L]), hypoosmotic pressure (<290mmol/kg[<290mOsm/kg]), urinary hyperostosis (>100mmol/kg[>100mOsm/kg]), and elevated urinary sodium concentration (>20mmol/kg[> > Although this syndrome is primarily associated with brain injury, lung pathology, malignancy, or the use of certain drugs in the breed, it has little reference in the veterinary literature, so its prevalence and impact in small animals are not well defined. The syndrome, in this case, appears after head trauma, so it is highly suspected to be related to brain injury.
The treatment of SIADH, on the one hand, is to control the primary disease; on the other, it is to treat concurrent hyponatremia. In this case, the primary disease may be intracranial injury or even infection due to head trauma. Furosemide, 1mg/kg/QD.po, was administered to control brain edema. Amoxicillin potassium clavulanate was the antibiotic of choice, but unfortunately, this drug cannot be administered intravenously and may not achieve the desired concentration of CSF drug. Combined antibiotic administration with intravenous ampicillin (22mg/kg, iv,q6h) is a better option. Cefotaxime (20-40mg/kg,iv,q6h) and metronidazole (15mg/kg,iv at first, then 7.5mg/kg,iv,q8h, or 10-15mg/kg,po,q8h). Antibiotics should be given intravenously for 3-5 days to achieve peak blood concentration in CSF and continued orally for four weeks after recovery.
Hyponatremia is treated to correct osmotic pressure and restore average cell volume through intravenous fluid therapy, water restriction, or both to increase the ratio of sodium to water in the extracellular fluid. Asymptomatic animals with hyponatremia are best treated conservatively. Lactate Ringer’s solution or Ringer’s solution can be used for mild hyponatremia (>130mmol/kg) and normal saline for more severe hyponatremia (<130mmol/kg). Fluid and electrolyte balance should be gradually restored within 24 to 48h, and serum electrolyte concentrations and central nervous system symptoms of the animal should be assessed regularly. The more acute and severe the hyponatremia, the more slowly the serum sodium concentration should be restored to prevent central nervous system damage. Furosemide 0.2-1mg/kg IV and maintenance frequency saline may also be used. Furosemide is a loop diuretic with sodium-raising activity. It can proportionally discharge more water than sodium to control and correct hyponatremia. Still, caution must be exercised with diuretics, and hypertonic solutions as this may increase plasma sodium concentration. They lead to permanent brain damage (osmotic demyelination syndrome).
Hyponatremia (<140mmol/L) was reported in about 25% of canine patients with SIADH in veterinary hospitals, with a mortality rate of 13.7% compared with 4.4% in canine patients with normal sodium levels. The prognosis depends mainly on the primary disease’s severity and hyponatremia’s severity. 20mEq/L]), other diagnostic criteria include regular hydration and normal renal, adrenal, and thyroid function. This case was presented with significant hyponatremia (124mmol/L) and low osmotic pressure (253.5mOsm/kg). Although urine osmotic pressure and sodium concentration could not be obtained due to the limitation of the urinalysis equipment, combined with the history and physical examination, the possibility of other diseases was very low, and a preliminary diagnosis of SIADH was made. At the same time, we can easily suspect the illness through the differential diagnosis list of hyponatremia (Table below).

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Normal plasma osmotic pressure

plasma osmotic pressure increase

plasma osmotic pressure decrease

hyperlipemia

hyperproteinemia

hyperglycemia

 

Mannitol infusion too much

 

Severe azotemia

hypervolemia

Normal blood volume

hypovolemia

 

 

Advanced liver failure

 

Advanced renal failure

 

Nephrotic syndrome

 

Congestive heart failure

 

Primary (psychological dipsia)

Abnormal secretion of antidiuretic hormone

Myxoid edema coma with hypothyroidism

Iatrogenic causes (hypodialysis injection, antidiuretic drugs)

Hypoadrenocortical function

Loss of gastric and intestinal fluid

The loss of the third gap fluid

Skin burn

Diuretic injection

Diagnosis and treatment of canine parvovirus

Abstract

Parvovirus is a highly contagious viral disease that causes intestinal necrosis and mucosal hemorrhage in dogs. It is mainly divided into enteritis type and myocarditis type. This infectious disease has the characteristics of high infectivity, and high fatality rate in dogs and the features of lifelong detoxification after the infected person is cured. This is very dangerous for puppies who have not been vaccinated shortly after birth. Its clinical normality mainly causes loss of appetite, vomiting, hemorrhagic diarrhea, and rapid dehydration in dogs. Sick dogs are the primary source of infection. The virus is transmitted mainly through contact with feces, urine, saliva, and vomit of sick dogs, and the disease can occur all year round.

This article is the clinical diagnosis and treatment of canine parvovirus enteritis-type cases organized as follows.

1: Case Information

Parvovirus is a highly contagious viral disease that causes intestinal necrosis and mucosal hemorrhage in dogs. It is mainly divided into enteritis type and myocarditis type. This infectious disease has the characteristics of high infectivity, and high fatality rate in dogs and the features of lifelong detoxification after the infected person is cured. This is very dangerous for puppies who have not been vaccinated shortly after birth. Its clinical normality mainly causes loss of appetite, vomiting, hemorrhagic diarrhea, and rapid dehydration in dogs. Sick dogs are the primary source of infection. The virus is transmitted mainly through contact with feces, urine, saliva, and vomit of sick dogs, and the disease can occur all year round.

This article is the clinical diagnosis and treatment of canine parvovirus enteritis-type cases organized as follows.

2: Medical History Investigation

Diagnosis and treatment of canine parvovirus

1. Medical problems: loss of appetite, spitting up milk, diarrhea, lack of energy, lethargy
2.Main statement: The 30-day-old dog was taken back to the warehouse by the bitch to raise. The puppy has already been able to eat the soft milk cake food soaked in milk. On the fourth day after arriving home, my appetite and spirit deteriorated. On the fifth day, it only drank milk and would vomit. He started to have diarrhea at night, didn’t eat anything on the sixth day, was in poor spirits, and was inactive. After feeding probiotics, it didn’t see any improvement. On the seventh day, the owner brought the puppy back to the mother dog to drink breast milk. After drinking it, it still vomited and had no appetite. The owner brought the puppy to the hospital on the eighth day for treatment. No vaccinations and deworming were done, and the diet was not changed.

3: Physical Examination

1. Overall inspection
BCS: 4/9, good body condition, messy fur, no dander, dehydration level 5, normal limbs and bones

2. General inspection
BW: 1.6KG T: 38.1℃ HR: 140/min RR: 40/min

3. System check
Auscultation of heart and lung sounds was expected, with palpation of mild pain in the abdomen and resistance.

4. Laboratory examination
Inspection items: blood routine, acute reaction protein, canine parvovirus antigen detection, stool microscopy

Check Item

Check Result

Reference Range

WBC

11.6*10^9/L

6.0-17.0

LYMPH

3.1*10^9/L

0.8-5.1

MON

0.5*10^9/L

0.0-1.9

GRAN

8.0*10^9/L

4.0-12.6

LYMPH%

26.8%

12.0-30.0

MON%

4.2%

2.0-9.0

GRAN%

69%

60.0-83.0

RBC

4.21*10^12/L

5.50-8.50

HGB

86g/L

110-190

HCT

29.8%

39.0-56.0

MCV

71fL

62.0-72.0

MCH

20.4pg

20.0-25.0

MCHC

288g/L

300-380

RDW

14.7%

11.0-15.5

PLT

122*10^9/L

117-460

MPV

10.9fL

7.0-12.9

PDW

18.1

 

PCT

0.131%

 

EOS%

1.7%

 

Acute Response Protein

Check Item

Check Result

Reference Range

CRP

41mg/L

<20mg/L

Canine Parvocoronavirus Antigen

Check Item

Check Result

Canine Parvovirus Antigen(CPV ag)

+

Canine Coronavirus Antigen(CCV ag)

Microscopic examination of stool
Blood routine red blood cells, hemoglobin, and hematocrit decrease indicate anemia in young animals. Acute reaction protein increases indicate moderate acute inflammatory infection, positive canine parvovirus antigen indicates parvovirus infection, and canine coronavirus antigen is negative. Microscopic examination of feces showed no obvious parasite eggs, increased bacilli, and active intestinal bacilli.

4: Diagnosis and Treatment

Diagnosis and treatment of canine parvovirus

Diagnosis: canine parvovirus infection + anemia
Treatment:
2022.12.21 Dehydration 5 times, vomiting five times, diarrhea two times, poor spirits
1.10.9%NACL 20ML+Omeprazole 5MG intravenous infusion 5ML/H
1.2LRS30ML+50%GS0.5ML+coenzyme A0.2ML+energy group each 0.2ML intravenous infusion 8ML/H
1.3 0.9%NACL20ML+Ceftriaxone 0.2ML intravenous infusion 5ML/H
1.4 5%GS30ML+Albumin 2.5ML Intravenous infusion 5ML/H
1.5 LRS40ML+compound vitamin B0.2ML intravenous infusion 5ML/H
1.6 Subcutaneous injection of interferon 100U
1.7 Small monoclonal antibody 1/2 subcutaneous injection

2022.12.22 Vomiting 2 times, diarrhea one time, normal energy, appetite
2.1 0.9%NACL 20ML+Omeprazole 5MG intravenous infusion 5ML/H
2.2 LRS30ML+coenzyme A0.2ML+energy group each 0.2ML intravenous infusion 8ML/H
2.3 0.9%NACL20ML+Ceftriaxone 0.2ML intravenous infusion 5ML/H
2.4 5%GS30ML+Albumin 2.5ML Intravenous infusion 5ML/H
2.5 LRS20ML+compound vitamin B0.2ML intravenous infusion 5ML/H
2.6 Subcutaneous injection of interferon 100U
2.7 Small monoclonal antibody 1/2 subcutaneous injection


2022.12.23 No vomiting, no stool, slightly better spirits, appetite
3.1 0.9%NACL 20ML+Omeprazole 5MG intravenous infusion 5ML/H
3.2 LRS30ML+coenzyme A0.2ML+energy group each 0.2ML intravenous infusion 8ML/H
3.3 0.9%NACL20ML+Ceftriaxone 0.2ML intravenous infusion 5ML/H
3.4 5%GS30ML+albumin 2.5ML intravenous infusion 5ML/H
3.5 LRS20ML+compound vitamin B0.2ML intravenous infusion 5ML/H
3.6 Subcutaneous injection of interferon 100U
3.7 Small monoclonal antibody 1/2 subcutaneous injection
3.8 Feed a small amount of milk foam milk cake food

2022.12.24 No vomiting, soft stools, normal spirit, appetite
4.1 0.9%NACL 20ML+omeprazole 5MG intravenous infusion 5ML/H
4.2 LRS20ML+compound vitamin B0.2ML intravenous infusion 5ML/H
4.3 0.9%NACL20ML + ceftriaxone 0.2ML intravenous infusion 5ML/H,
4.4 LRS30ML+coenzyme A0.2ML+energy group each 0.2ML intravenous infusion 8ML/H
4.5 Subcutaneous injection of interferon 100U
4.6 Small monoclonal antibody 1/2 subcutaneous injection
4.7 Feeding milk foam milk cake food

2022.12.25 No vomiting, soft stools, normal mental appetite
5.1 0.9%NACL 20ML+Omeprazole 5MG intravenous infusion 5ML/H
5.2 LRS20ML+compound vitamin B0.2ML intravenous infusion 5ML/H
5.3 0.9%NACL20ML + ceftriaxone 0.2ML intravenous infusion 5ML/H,
5.4 LRS30ML+coenzyme A0.2ML+energy group each 0.2ML intravenous infusion 8ML/H
5.5 Subcutaneous injection of interferon 100U
5.6 Small monoclonal antibody 1/2 subcutaneous injection
5.7 Feeding milk foam milk cake food

2022.12.26.27 No vomiting, basically normal stool, normal mental appetite
1. Ceftriaxone 0.2ML subcutaneous injection
2. Subcutaneous injection of interferon 100U
3. Probiotics
4. Prescription food for puppy intestines
5. Blood-enriching Ganjing Oral Liquid

5: Precautions

1. In the early stage of treatment, it is necessary to fast for food and water in the severe stage of vomiting of sick dogs to avoid the aggravation of symptoms.
2. If blood in the stool occurs during treatment, hemostatic drugs such as Zhixuemin, Baquting, etc., can be used.
3. Effectively control vomiting, diarrhea, and inflammation symptoms as early as possible.
4. Rehydration needs to be adjusted according to the dehydration situation of the sick dog on the day to reasonably correct the water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance.
5. During the treatment period, keep warm and feed liquid food when there is no vomiting symptom, and gradually return to normal.
6. During the treatment period, due to the rapid development of viral infection, it is easy to develop secondary intussusception or pancreatitis, leading to aggravation. Communicating with the pet owner about the mortality and complications is necessary.

6: Prognosis

After a week of hospitalization, he was discharged from the hospital. Its appetite and bowel movements were regular. It returned to recuperate the stomach with probiotics and transitioned the puppies to intestinal prescription food. The prognosis was good.

Hospitalized Picture
Diagnosis and treatment of canine parvovirus

7: Disease pathogenesis and prevention

Canine parvovirus is caused by canine parvovirus type 2 of the family Parvoviridae and the genus Parvovirus. Parvovirus replication depends on specific functions of the host cell, and it can only cause effective infection before the most vigorous DNA synthesis period of cell division. This may be caused by contact with the urine, feces, and saliva of sick dogs or carrying dogs. Its vomit is detoxified, causing food and drinking water pollution, and healthy animals without immunity are infected with the disease through the digestive tract. The virus replicates in the lymphoid tissues of the oropharynx, mesentery, and thymus. It diffuses to the small intestine’s crypt cells through viremia, which occurs 1-5 days after infection. Virus detoxification begins 3-4 days after infection, and a large amount of detoxification can last for 7-10 days. Puppies aged 2-6 months are most susceptible, and the mortality rate is as high as 50-100%. According to the characteristics of dogs, such as frequent vomiting, diarrhea, severe hemorrhagic diarrhea, and dehydration, the disease should be highly suspected. Some affected dogs may be infected with coronavirus at the same time, so they need to be checked at the same time.

Prevention:
1. Get vaccinated on time
2. Newly changed environment Animals need a nutritious diet to enhance body resistance
3. Puppies are recommended to be fully vaccinated before going out for a walk and avoid injection with virus-infected environments or animals
4. Do not take a bath if you have not been vaccinated, and pay attention to keeping warm and cold.

Diagnosis and treatment of canine dermal histiocytoma

Abstract

Canine cutaneous histiocytoma is a common benign skin tumor in dogs, accounting for 6.7%-14% of canine skin tumors. Clinically, it is usually solitary, occasionally multiple, and is generally diagnosed based on the dog’s age, symptoms, biological manifestations of cancer, and cytological examination. The tumor grows fast, but it is a benign tumor that usually regresses within 2-4 months and rarely recurs. Surgical resection may be considered if cancer affects the dog’s daily behavior.
This article is a case analysis of the diagnosis and treatment of canine foot skin histiocytoma as follows:

Diagnosis and treatment of canine dermal histiocytoma

1: Case information

1.Name: Ann
2.Breed: Golden Retriever
3.Age: 1.2 years old
4.Gender: female
5.Diagnosis time: 2022.8.15

2: Medical history investigation

1.Visiting problem: There is swelling, redness, slight ulceration, and frequent licking on the left hind limb
2.Main statement: During this week, the dog was found to lick his feet frequently and walk with a little limp, and swelling was found in the foot examination. The owner disinfected it with iodophor at home and put an Elizabethan ring on it, but there was no noticeable improvement. The condition has been half a month, and the spirit, appetite, and bowel movements are regular, and the activities and activities outside are also typical. There are occasional limps at home, and the annual vaccination has been completed. Deworm on time.

3: Physical Examination

1. Overall inspection
BCS: 5/9, good body condition, smooth fur, no dander, normal limbs and bones, and a skin tumor on the left hind limb.
2. General inspection
BW: 32KG T: 38.8℃ HR: 120/min RR: 30/min
3. System check
Auscultation of heart and lung sounds is normal, palpation of the abdomen is normal, and foot resistance is checked.

4: Laboratory tests

Inspection items: blood routine, acute reaction protein, skin cytology examination, biochemical examination

Check Item

Check Results

Reference Range

WBC

6.8*10^9/L

6.0-17.0

LYMPH

2.8*10^9/L

0.8-5.1

MON

0.4*10^9/L

0.0-1.9

GRAN

5.0*10^9/L

4.0-12.6

LYMPH%

27.1%

12.0-30.0

MON%

5.2%

2.0-9.0

GRAN%

74.3%

60.0-83.0

RBC

8.0*10^12/L

5.50-8.50

HGB

148g/L

110-190

HCT

48.2%

39.0-56.0

MCV

66fL

62.0-72.0

MCH

22.4pg

20.0-25.0

MCHC

307g/L

300-380

RDW

13.6%

11.0-15.5

PLT

267*10^9/L

117-460

MPV

9.1fL

7.0-12.9

PDW

17.6

 

PCT

0.152%

 

EOS%

1.31%

 

Acute Response Protein

Check Item

Check Results

Reference Range

CRP

28mg/L

<20mg/L

Microscopic examination of skin cytology
Diagnosis and treatment of canine dermal histiocytoma

Biochemical Tests

Check Item

Check Results

Reference Range

ALB

2.8g/dl

2.3-4.0

ALKP

102u/l

23-212

ALT

35u/l

10-100

AMYL

740u/l

500-1500

BUN

25mg/dl

16-36

CA

9.6mg/dl

7.8-11.3

CHOL

154mg/dl

65-225

CREA

1.1mg/dl

0.8-2.4

GLU

123mg/dl

74-159

PHOS

4.2mg/dl

3.1-7.5

TBIL

0.4mg/dl

0.0-0.9

TP

7.3g/dl

5.7-8.9

GLOB

4.2g/dl

2.8-5.1

Blood routine was normal, acute reaction protein was slightly elevated, skin cytology suggested histiocytoma, and biochemical liver and kidney indicators were normal.

Pictures of affected areas
Diagnosis and treatment of canine dermal histiocytoma

5: Diagnosis and Treatment

Diagnosis: Canine Histiocytoma
Treatment: Surgical resection (affects normal behavior and activities and is prone to secondary infection, so surgical resection is recommended)
1.1 Basic preparation before surgery and essential physical examination to assess risk
Shave the affected area after anesthesia, rinse with normal saline, and then perform normal surgery disinfection
1.2 Medication after surgery
Amoxicillin Clavulanate Potassium 1.6ML Subcutaneous injection once a day for five consecutive days.
Kelu Wound Spray 2-3 times a day. Clean the wound first and then apply the gel.
Kelu gel 2-3 times a day

6: Precautions

1. Canine cutaneous histiocytoma is a relatively common benign tumor. Although it often occurs in young dogs, histiocytoma should also be checked for skin tumors in middle-aged and elderly animals.
2. In cytology, histiocytoma, and plasmacytoma are easily confused around cell tumors. Comprehensive analysis should be based on essential physical examination and medical history symptoms.
3. When communicating with the owner, it is necessary to leave a certain amount of leeway. Puncture cytology is not the standard for diagnosing tumors, and the pathology of the submitted histopathology shall prevail.
4. When some histiocytes mixed with small lymphocytes appear in cytology, it means that histiocytoma may be about to regress on its own.
5. It is necessary to restrict exercise after the operation and keep the breeding environment dry and clean to avoid surgical wound contamination.
6. During the hospitalization period, the assistant must regularly check whether the Elizabeth ring has fallen off to avoid secondary infection caused by the dog licking the wound.
7. After surgical resection, it is necessary to take medication and clean the wound on time.
8. Remove the stitches within one week.

Diagnosis and treatment of canine dermal histiocytoma

7: Prognosis

One week after hospitalization, the stitches were removed from the wound, the wound healed well, the walking was expected, the appetite and defecation were normal, and the prognosis was good.

8: Disease pathogenesis and prevention

Histiocytes are CD34+ stem cell-derived cells that differentiate into antigen-presenting cells (dendritic cell lineage) or phagocytic cells (monocyte/macrophage lineage). Disorder in these cell lines can lead to various reactive and neoplastic conditions in humans, dogs, and cats. Among them, canine cutaneous histiocytoma is a common benign skin tumor in dogs derived from Langerhans cells, an epidermal antigen-presenting cell. It accounts for 6.7% to 14% of all skin tumors in dogs. Canine dermal histiocytoma mainly presents as a red, hairless, nodular solitary lesion protruding from the skin, some with a typical “button” appearance, which may sometimes be ruptured and ulcerated. Usually, it does not cause other obvious clinical symptoms. In clinical practice, fine-needle aspiration of tumors is generally carried out for cytological examination. Microscopic examination will show flakes of light blue basophilic protein background and round cells of various sizes. The cytoplasm is mildly basophilic and nonvacuolated, and the nuclei are eccentric, oval, or reniform. Generally, canine dermal histiocytoma cells have the same appearance and few malignant cytological features. However, due to their rapid growth rate, the mitotic index may be high, and the division is apparent. It should be interpreted carefully to avoid misjudging it as a malignant tumor. Canine dermal histiocytoma can occur in dogs of any age. Still, it is more common in young dogs under three years old, and most of them will resolve spontaneously within 2-4 months without appropriate treatment or surgery. The prognosis is good. However, clinically, histiocytoma has a unique growth site and affects normal behavior and activities. Surgical resection is recommended for pet owners. Usually, surgical resection also has a good prognosis.
Prevention: There is no prevention method, and the factors affecting the regression of canine cutaneous histiocytoma are still unclear. There are two conjectures. One is that its spontaneous regression is mediated by CD8+αβT cells. Reversal is accompanied by progressive infiltration of lymphocytes, which eventually spread throughout the lesion, and these lymphocytes may be crucial to tumor cell lysis. Another hypothesis is that since histiocytoma is a tumor with a small amount of fibrovascular stroma, disruption of tumor vascularization may make tumor cell survival difficult, so induction of tumor necrosis may be a potential mechanism leading to tumor regression.
Furthermore, the natural regression of tumors in humans and animals is often attributed to a reduction in tumor cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, or activation of the immune system. It has been found that the regression of canine histiocytoma may also be the result of an imbalance between cell proliferation and programmed cell death. Still, the current understanding of its regression remains limited.
In conclusion, canine cutaneous histiocytoma has the characteristics of self-regression. It is a benign tumor frequently occurring in young dogs under three years old and generally does not cause obvious clinical symptoms in dogs. Therefore, a cytological examination is used to confirm the tumor histiocytoma, and then the changes in the tumor can be observed. Depending on the dog’s condition, it can be decided whether surgical resection is required and whether unnecessary treatment should be avoided.

The diagnosis and clinical analysis of sneezing in canine periodontitis case

Abstract

This case was a patient with long-term sneezing symptoms who was finally diagnosed with an oral-nasal fistula. Oral-nasal fistula is the abnormal fistula formed between the oral and nasal cavities. Common causes include trauma, periodontal disease, tumor, congenital dysplasia, etc. Its clinical symptoms include frequent sneezing and chronic, unilateral serous or mucopurulent nasal fluid. The early oral-nasal fistula is very limited in diagnosing and evaluating oral-nasal diseases because the clinical symptoms are not obvious or because the head tissue overlaps significantly and the contrast is poor. At the same time, computed tomography (CT) provides more possibilities for diagnosing head diseases. It is especially suitable for the evaluation and differential diagnosis of oral and nasal disorders. In this case, CT diagnosis revealed multiple canine periodontitis complicated with oral-nasal fistula and nasal obstruction. The effectiveness and comprehensiveness of CT diagnosis were significantly superior to X-ray. Once diagnosed, periodontitis and oral-nasal fistula should be treated with ultrasonic tooth cleaning, tooth extraction, and oral-nasal fistula repair as soon as possible. However, periodontitis is a preventable disease. Daily brushing and oral care products should be used to keep oral teeth clean and prevent the occurrence of periodontitis and its complications.

Keywords: Canine, periodontitis, Oral-nasal fistula, diagnosis

Basic information

Name: LAI FU
Breed: schnauzer
Sex: male (castrated)
Age: 11.5 years old
Body weight: 11.2 kg

History:

Complete vaccination and deworming, virus infection when he was young.

The owner fed him at home, ate dog food, and brushed his teeth occasionally. The time brushing their teeth was nearly one year ago. 2 months ago, the patient presented with increasing snot from the right nasal, and reverse sneezing was found occasionally. In the last two weeks, the dog’s appetite decreased, the patient’s body weight had reduced from 11.8kg to 11.2 kg, he was found the more frequently increasing sneezing and reverse sneezing, slightly cloudy nasal discharge from the right nostril, occasionally bloodshot. So decided to take him to the hospital. Vaccinate history is completed, and deworming is this year.

The diagnosis and clinical analysis of sneezing in canine periodontitis case

Physical examination

Body weight 11.2kg, temperature 38.4℃, respiratory rate was 25/min, heart rate:110 beats/min.No prominent murmurs in breathing and cardiophony. Mouth mucosa was pink, capillary refill time(CRT)<2s, and body condition score(BCS)was 5/9, which can touch the ribs in palpation. The patient was presented with a highly depressing situation—dry coat and nose. Abdominal palpation was found to be nothing evident abnormal. Poor smelling from the month with breathing, moderate to severe calculi in premolar and molar teeth, local gingival atrophy, a small amount of yellowish discharge in the right nostril, bilateral nostril ventilation tests showed significantly less airflow in the right nostril. The dehydration was evaluated at 5%. Palpation, the rate of the femoral artery, was equal to the heart rate.

Laboratory examination
Complete Blood Count (CBC) examination

Project

Result

Reference Range

WBC

18.4×103/uL

6.0~17.0

RBC

7.56×106/uL

5.5~10

HGB

17.2g/dL

12.0~18.0

HCT

51.2%

37~55

MCV

64.1fL

60~77

MCH

22.8pg

19~24.5

MCHC

32.3g/dL

30~37

PLT

474×103/uL

200~500

LYM%

6.9%

12~30

OTHR%

92.5%

60~86

EO%

8.4%

2~10

LYM#

0.4×103/uL

 

OTHR#

11.6×103/uL

 

EO#

0.6×103/uL

 

 

Interpretation: There was a mild increase in the WBC and OTHER%. Most were the increase of neutrophils and monocyte in the blood smear. Red blood cell count and HCT are average, but the physical examination indicated a possibility of dehydration with a low liquid volume.
Idexx Catalyst biochemistry CHEM17

Project

Result

Reference Range

ALB

2.6g/dL

2.3-4.0

ALT

96U/L

10-100

ALKP

115U/L

23-212

AMYL

563U/L

500-1500

BUN/CREA

8

 

UREA

10.1mg/dL

7-27

CREA

1.0mg/dL

0.5-1.8

GGT

1U/L

0-7

LIPA

752U/L

200-1800

PHOS

2.5mg/dL

2.5-6.8

TP

5.3g/dL

5.2-8.2

TBIL

3mg/dL

0-15

GLOB

4.0g/dL

2.5-4.5

ALB/GLOB

0.65

 

GLU

98mg/dL

74-143

CHOL

3.74mmol/L

2.84-8.26

CA

2.00mmol/L

1.98-3

Interpretation: No apparent abnormalities in biochemical indicators. The diagnosis should be analyzed with the other examinations.
The result of the CRP testing

Project

Result

Reference Range

CRP

6 mg/L

<10mg/L

Interpretation: The result of CRP was typical. The inflammation might be a chronic process combined with the development of CBC.

The radiography of X-ray examination of the head
The diagnosis and clinical analysis of sneezing in canine periodontitis case

Picture 1. Markedly Decreasing the density around the roots of several premolars and slight loss of alveolar bone were seen, but no obvious abnormality was observed in the septum and adjacent nasal tissues. (VD radiograph)

The diagnosis and clinical analysis of sneezing in canine periodontitis case

Picture 2. Markedly Decreasing density around the roots of several premolars and slight loss of alveolar bone were seen, suggesting periodontal disease of this patient -Right lateral radiograph

The radiography of CT of the nose
The diagnosis and clinical analysis of sneezing in canine periodontitis case The diagnosis and clinical analysis of sneezing in canine periodontitis case

Due to the decreasing airway volume in the right nasal cavity and obvious reverse sneezing, nasal obstruction was suspected, so a CT examination was recommended. The CT image showed that alveolar bone osteolysis was observed in teeth 106, 107, and 108, and the tooth root communicated with the nasal cavity (indicated by the white arrow). The ipsilateral nasal cavity was full of substances with soft tissue density shadow, and the enhancement signal was not noticeable. There was no apparent space-occupying mass. CT results suggested oral-nasal fistula and right nasal obstruction, which may be a tumor, inflammatory substances, or foreign bodies.

Diagnosis

Oral and nasal fistula in canine periodontitis
According to the history, clinical examination, and auxiliary examination of the dog, the preliminary diagnosis was periodontitis complicated with oral-nasal fistula, and inflammatory rhinitis or nasal tumor was suspected. After extracting 108 teeth during the anesthesia operation, it was found that the dissolved alveolar bone cavity and the nasal cavity were filled with a large amount of bean curd residue with a small amount of hair. After removing these substances, blood flowed out of the right nostril, and the nasal cavity was patented, indicating that the importance filled with soft tissue density in the nasal cavity in the CT image was not issued. A mixture of food debris and inflammatory exudation enters the nasal cavity through an oral-nasal fistula. Cytological examination of the nasal mucosa and subsequent blood examination of the case indicated chronic rhinitis, and no tumor lesions were found.

Treatment

1. Surgical remove the teeth
2. Metronidazole 7.5mg q12h p.o q12h
3. Amoxicillin clavulanic acid 20mg/kg s.c q12h
4. Liquid(diet)
All the premolars and molars of the right upper jaw were extracted due to periodontitis and gingival atrophy in teeth 105, 107, and 110. As a result, the occlusal surface of the right jaw was missing to avoid postoperative damage of mandibular teeth to the gums and hard palate. Therefore, the premolars and molars of the lower jaw were also extracted. After cleaning and disinfecting, the separated gingival flap was closed with a 4-0 monofilament suture. For oral-nasal fistulas at teeth 106, 108, and 109, the gingival flap-free repair was performed, inflammatory granulation tissue in the fistulas was removed, fresh wounds were made on the palatal side, and labial side and the single labial mucosal free flap was separated. Oral-nasal fistulas were repaired without tension nodule sutures.
After 24 hours of fasting, soft or fluid food was gradually given, and the mouth was cleaned after eating to avoid food residue remaining on the wound and affecting wound healing. Antibiotics (sun sol + metronidazole) were given for one week. After two weeks of postoperative visits, the pet reported good wound healing, normal mental appetite, significantly reduced sneezing, and clean nostrils.

The diagnosis and clinical analysis of sneezing in canine periodontitis case

Conclusion

Oral-nasal fistula is the abnormal passage between the oral cavity and nasal cavity caused by trauma or other diseases. It can occur in animals of any breed and gender. Congenital oral-nasal fistula can be seen, but it is usually secondary to periodontal diseases, trauma, and tumors in middle-aged and elderly animals, also known as an acquired oral-nasal fistula. Acquired oral-nasal fistula, the most common cause of which is periodontitis, occurs in 80-85% of canine, feline patients over 2-3 years of age, according to a comprehensive review of the literature. It most commonly occurs on the palatal side of the maxillary canine. Other teeth that may be involved in forming an oral-nasal fistula are:

  • The incisor.
  • The first and second maxillary premolars.
  • The mesial root of the third premolar.

The formation of fistulas between the oral cavity and maxillary recess may be associated with late periodontitis in the distal roots of the third premolar, fourth premolar, and first molar. The typical clinical symptoms of oral-nasal fistula, such as runny nose, epistaxis, sneezing, dyspnea, snoring, panting, etc., when the patient has the above clinical signs in addition to oral-nasal fistula, it is still necessary to identify and diagnose rhinitis, nasal tumors, nasal foreign bodies, especially in cases that have caused nasal congestion, which may lead to no epistaxis in periodontal exploration and missed oral-nasal fistula. The nasal cavity is a 3D spatial structure mainly surrounded by bone tissue, and the lesions of the oral-nasal fistula are usually located on the side of the palate. Therefore, 2D X-ray imaging has certain limitations in diagnosing nasal diseases, and CT or MRI tomography is better than traditional X-ray imaging diagnosis. CT is easy to diagnose oral and nasal conditions and can provide a lot of diagnostic information regarding lesion location, scope, nature, relationship with surrounding tissues, and invasion degree.

The diagnosis and clinical analysis of sneezing in canine periodontitis case

The CT image characteristics of periodontitis complicated with oral-nasal fistula are that the fistula leading from the maxillary root to the nasal cavity can be found, and the local alveolar osteolysis can be observed in the periodontal region. Meanwhile, because oral-nasal fistula is often secondary to chronic rhinitis, liquid accumulation, soft tissue density, dissolution, and destruction of turbinate bone or ethmoid plate in the nasal passage near the fistula can also be seen frequently, and abnormal images can be dispersed throughout the nasal cavity or locally. Periodontitis lesions may affect the frontal sinuses, maxillary recesses, and the bones that make up the nasal cavity. In CT images, abnormal soft tissue images in the frontal sinuses and maxillary recesses, non-specific thickening of the mucosa on the surface of the nasal bone, and irregular soft tissue images in the facial sinuses and behind the eyeballs can be seen. Soft tissue density imaging is usually uneven and not evident on enhanced CT. When the homogeneous soft tissue density mass, extensive destruction of turbinate and related bone, destruction of the nasal septum, frontal sinus, or ethmoid plate, involvement of the nasopharynx or the retrobulbar area, uneven enhancement of the soft tissue density mass after enhancement, and high and low mixed (mottled) density shadow, the possibility of a tumor should be considered first, although rhinitis, nasal tumor, and nasal foreign body have different CT findings, there are still many cases of actual cases of CT image findings make doctors feel ambiguous, most patients with tumors will also be accompanied by inflammation, and some instances of severe rhinitis can also see soft tissue density mass, so the diagnosis should be based on histopathology as the gold standard, and CT signs have a solid suggestive role.

The key to surgical treatment of this disease is to choose single or double mucosal flap repair to repair the oral-nasal fistula according to the size of the fistula. Most oral-nasal fistula repairs can be successful if the mucosal flap has no tension and a good blood supply: postoperative routine anti-infection and analgesic treatment, feeding liquid diet, soft diet for about one week. Keep your mouth clean and hygienic. Use oral care gel or mouthwash to aid rehabilitation.

In the retrospective study of CT diagnosis of 29 cases of canine nose diseases by DR.Cai et al., College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, the results showed that 19 cases were malignant tumors (65.9% (19/29), 5 cases were rhinitis secondary to periodontitis (17.2% (5/29), and 4 cases were inflammatory rhinitis (13.7% (4/29). One case was foreign body rhinitis (3.4%, 1/29). Dr.Mei et al. from the College of Veterinary Medicine of Nanjing Agricultural University conducted a retrospective study on CT diagnosis of 19 cases of canine nose bleeding, and the results showed that the number of cases caused by oral and nasal fistula was the largest, accounting for 26.3% (5/19), nasal tumors accounted for 15.8% (3/19), and nasal infection and trauma accounted for 10.5% (2/19), respectively. Foreign body and granuloma in the nasal cavity accounted for 5.3% (1/19), respectively, and undetermined etiology accounted for 26.3% (5-19) [4]. It can be seen from the data statistics that the proportion of nasal diseases caused by periodontitis is still relatively high, which requires special attention from clinical veterinarians and good education of pet owners. Because periodontitis and its complications are preventable, good home care, consistent daily brushing, and control of plaque and stones can effectively prevent the occurrence of periodontitis. Studies have shown that brushing every other day is not enough to maintain clinical dental health in dogs, so it is essential to stick to daily brushing. The correct way to brush is to hold the toothbrush at a 45-degree angle so that the tip of the toothbrush goes deep into the gingival groove and around the teeth to ensure that the teeth are clean. Oral care products such as mouthwash, mouth gel, and bite gel can also aid effectively. The use of products certified by the Veterinary Oral Health Council VOHC is recommended.

The diagnosis and clinical analysis of sneezing in canine periodontitis case

Diagnosis and treatment of canine interdactylitis

Abstract

Canine interdactylitis, also known as interdigital pyoderma, occurs regardless of breed and age. Dogs scratch the soles of their feet during daily walking or have not cleaned the hair on their feet for a long time. The breeding environment is humid, and molds breed. It may also be due to parasites, allergies, etc., that cause abnormal damage to the soles of the dogs, which can cause bacterial infections between the toes. Interdactylitis is a skin inflammation that occurs between the toes of a dog. It can occur singly or with multiple toes. Some open spaces between the toes due to minor wounds due to the humid environment, or the toes may be infected with bacteria because the dog frequently licks them.

It may be slightly red and swollen initially, developing into a granuloma or cyst. Some affected dogs will not dare to step on the ground because of the swelling and pain, so they will appear bumpy and lame when walking.

This article is about the diagnosis and treatment of canine interdactylitis received in clinical practice, and the cases are organized as follows.

Diagnosis and treatment of canine interdactylitis

1: Case information

1. Name: Lulu
2. Breed: French fighting dog
3. Age: 1 year old
4. Gender: male
5. Consultation time: September 12, 2022

2: Medical history investigation

1. Visiting doctor: Frequent licking of feet, cysts between toes, redness, and swelling.
2. Main statement: This week, the owner found that the dog frequently licks the toes, the toes are very red, and he does not want people to touch them. He usually keeps the cage, and when he comes home from getting off work at night, he will let the dog out to play for a while. The dog is very clingy. The owner rubbed the affected area with the dermatitis medicine used by humans, but it did not improve, so he brought it to see a doctor. The dog has been fully vaccinated, dewormed on time, is usually fed dog food, occasionally eats dog snacks, and has a normal appetite and bowel movement.

3: Physical examination

1. Overall check
BCS: 6/9, overweight, smooth and soft back hair, no dander, no dehydration, normal bones, red hair on the toes of both forelimbs, and three cysts between the toes.

2. General check
BW: 9KG T: 39.1℃ HR: 130 /MIN RR: 28/min

3. System check
Auscultated heart rhythm was normal, intestinal peristaltic sounds were normal, the abdomen was palpated without abnormality, and forelimb resistance was palpated.

4. Laboratory tests
Inspection items: blood routine, acute reaction protein, biochemical examination, microscopic examination of a skin scraping
Routine blood tests showed a slight increase in leukocytes, a slight increase in acute reaction protein, and a normal biochemical examination of liver and kidney indicators. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings showed staphylococcal infection, and increased granulocytosis suggested a bacterial infection.

Blood Routine

Check Item

Check Result

Reference Range

WBC

19.8*10^9/L

6.0-17.0

LYMPH

4.7*10^9/L

0.8-5.1

MON

0.6*10^9/L

0.0-1.9

GRAN

9.6*10^9/L

4.0-12.6

LYMPH%

21.7%

12.0-30.0

MON%

3.75

2.0-9.0

GRAN%

61.6%

60.0-83.0

RBC

6.34*10^12/L

5.50-8.50

HGB

156g/L

110-190

HCT

42.7%

39.0-56.0

MCV

61.9fL

62.0-72.0

MCH

24.2pg

20.0-25.0

MCHC

305g/L

300-380

RDW

15.5%

11.0-15.5

PLT

432*10^9/L

117-460

MPV

7.9fL

7.0-12.9

PDW

17

 

PCT

0.298%

 

EOS%

3.4%

 

Acute Response Protein

Check Item

Check Result

Reference Range

CRP

38mg/L

<20mg/L

Biochemical Tests

Check Item

Check Result

Reference Range

ALB

2.8g/dl

2.3-4.0

ALKP

68u/l

23-212

ALT

39u/l

10-100

AMYL

858u/l

500-1500

BUN

30mg/dl

16-36

CA

9.8mg/dl

7.8-11.3

CHOL

171mg/dl

65-225

CREA

1.5mg/dl

0.8-2.4

GLU

95mg/dl

74-159

PHOS

3.7mg/dl

3.1-7.5

TBIL

0.05mg/dl

0.0-0.9

TP

6.9g/dl

5.7-8.9

GLOB

3.2g/dl

2.8-5.1

Microscopic examination of skin scrapings
Diagnosis and treatment of canine interdactylitis

Routine blood tests showed a slight increase in leukocytes, a slight increase in acute reaction protein, and a normal biochemical examination of liver and kidney indicators. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings showed staphylococcal infection, and increased granulocytosis suggested a bacterial infection.

4: Diagnosis and Treatment

1. Diagnosis: canine interdactylitis
2. Treatment:
1.1 Shave the affected parts of both forelimbs and trim nails
1.2 Rinse the affected area with normal saline, dry it, and then rinse with chlorhexidine once
1.3 Puncture the cyst, squeeze out the pus, rinse once with chlorhexidine, and blow dry
1.4 Kelu Wound Cleansing Spray Clean the wound once in the morning and evening, dry it and use it for a week
1.5 Kelu Wound Gel Once in the morning and evening, apply a thin layer on the affected area after cleaning, let it dry naturally, and use it for a week
1.6 Amoxicillin Clavulanate Potassium 250MG 7 Capsules Twice a Day, Half a Capsule Once
1.7 Elizabeth Circle

5: Matters needing attention

1. The skin sampling area should avoid pus and blood in the microscopic examination area to avoid incomplete sampling
2. After cleaning up and going home, you must wear the Elizabeth circle to avoid being licked clean after applying for the medicine. The medicine is ineffective, and further licking will increase the dampness of the affected area and worsen the condition.
3. Keep the affected area dry and tidy, and the living environment needs to be clean and dry
4. The use of glucocorticoids is prohibited during treatment, as it will cover up the condition and lead to aggravation or prolongation of the disease. It is necessary to take oral antibiotics on time to avoid further development of bacteremia.
5. Reduce exercise to relieve weight-bearing pain in the feet
6. Do not take a bath in the past two weeks

6: Prognosis

A week later, the follow-up visit showed that the cysts on the affected parts of both forelimbs had been eliminated, there was no redness, swelling, or exudation, the forelimbs did not resist palpation, the appetite was expected, and the gait was normal when walking. The prognosis was good.
Picture before treatment
Diagnosis and treatment of canine interdactylitis

7: Disease pathogenesis and prevention

Bacteria easily infect the skin of dogs. According to the different parts and degrees of infection, skin infection will manifest in various ways. According to the infected skin layer from shallow to deep, skin diseases can be divided into superficial pyoderma, superficial pyoderma, and superficial pyoderma. Deep pyoderma. Superficial pyoderma affects only the top layer of the skin. Redness, pain, and itching are common and sometimes have a “greasy” or oily appearance as infectious fluid seeps from within the skin, often in skin folds. Superficial pyoderma is an infection that penetrates deep into the skin, and it can also show redness and itching of the skin. Infection in the hair follicle can often be seen, and papules, pustules, and hair loss can be formed. Deep pyoderma is when the disease has penetrated the deeper cells of the skin, sometimes even into the subcutaneous tissue. Masses are visible to the naked eye, usually open channels and skin fissures that ooze pus or other substances, and erosions and ulcers can be observed. In dogs, the infection of the feet is usually a bacterial infection of the superficial or superficial layer of the skin. Bacterial skin disease between the toes is called canine interdactylitis.
In most cases, it is a secondary infection, and there is an underlying cause. The most common type of bacterial infection in canine interdactylitis is pseudo intermediate staphylococcus, which is mainly secondary to ectoparasitic diseases, allergies, and endocrine diseases. The breeding environment is humid and harsh. Due to the skin barrier defect of the species itself, the epidermis and hair follicles are damaged to form bacteria Infect. Dogs have five toes; generally, the body is supported by the 2nd to 5th toes. There are recessed gaps between the toes and the soles of the feet. The location of the disease is superficial hair follicles and skin. The clinical manifestations are papules, pustules, scabs, Scales, epidermal rings or erythema, chronic lesions with pigmentation, and variable itching. The lesions of long-haired dogs are often covered by thick and long hairs, which are difficult to find and then develop into severe hair follicle damage. The clinical symptoms include furunculosis, Hemorrhagic bullae, ulcers, nodules, and suppurative sinus tracts. In extreme cases, dogs are reluctant to walk because of pain, and symptoms such as depression and loss of appetite appear.

Prevention
1. Avoid wet feet.
2. Trim the dog’s nails and shave the feet regularly.
3. Avoid long-term cage breeding. If the dog’s feet rub against the railing at the bottom of the cage, it is easy to wear the feet and cause wound infection and inflammation.
4. To avoid injury to the soles of the feet, pay attention to stones, glass, thumbtacks, etc., when walking the dog.
5. Parasites and allergic factors, deworming dogs regularly, pay attention to allergic factors
6. Avoid using high-concentration disinfectants when disinfecting at home, as they are too irritating, and dogs’ paws are susceptible to these, which can also lead to interdactylitis.
7. Keep the living environment clean and dry.

Diagnosis and treatment of canine interdactylitis

Diagnosis and treatment of a case of canine pneumonia

Abstract

Canine pneumonia refers to the substantial inflammation of the lungs, usually caused by an infection in the trachea, bronchi, and alveoli. Common causes include inhalation of foreign bodies, parasites, mycoplasma infections, and bacterial, fungal, and viral infections. The main clinical symptoms are cough, dyspnea, shortness of breath, elevated body temperature, dry and moist rales on lung auscultation, loss of appetite, lethargy, and depression. The most direct impact is the decline of gas exchange function, which can easily lead to hypoxia in dogs. If it is not controlled in time, it will often cause irreparable damage to the lungs.

This article is a clinical case of diagnosis and treatment of canine pneumonia, organized as follows.

1: Case information

1. Name: gray gray
2. Breed: Poodle
3. Age: 6 months
4. Gender: male
5. Consultation time: October 20, 2022

2: Medical history investigation

1. Medical problems: cough, runny nose, depression, fever
2. Main statement: After bathing the dog last week, the owner did not dry it in time, and then the weather began to cool down. The dog had a runny nose and loss of appetite and coughed many times a day. Especially at night, the dog will vomit white foamy liquid. The owner did not feed the dog today, so he brought the dog to see a doctor. It did not take any medication, and it had been fully vaccinated. Last month, it had internal and external deworming. This month is not yet time. Its urine is yellow, and the frequency of defecation is also reduced. 

Diagnosis and treatment of a case of canine pneumonia

3: Physical examination

1. Overall check
BCS: 3/9, thin body condition, dry back hair, slight dandruff, dehydration 2, just clean around the anus.
2. General check
BW: 2.7KG T: 39.6℃ HR: 150/MIN RR: 40/min
3. System check
Auscultation arrhythmia, lung crackles, bowel sounds normal, palpation of the abdomen was normal.
4. Laboratory examination
Inspection items: virus screening, blood routine, acute reaction protein, biochemical examination, X-ray film

Virus Screen

Check Item

Check Result

Distemper Antigen(CDV ag)

Canine Influenza Antigens(CIV ag)

Blood Routine

Check Item

Check Result

Reference Range

WBC

28.0*10^9/L

6.0-17.0

LYMPH

4.7*10^9/L

0.8-5.1

MON

2.1*10^9/L

0.0-1.9

GRAN

8.2*10^9/L

4.0-12.6

LYMPH%

22.1%

12.0-30.0

MON%

4.2%

2.0-9.0

GRAN%

73%

60.0-83.0

RBC

5.0*10^12/L

5.50-8.50

HGB

105g/L

110-190

HCT

37.7%

39.0-56.0

MCV

58.0fL

62.0-72.0

MCH

23.2pg

20.0-25.0

MCHC

285g/L

300-380

RDW

15.5%

11.0-15.5

PLT

380*10^9/L

117-460

MPV

8.1fL

7.0-12.9

PDW

18

 

PCT

0.301%

 

EOS%

3.1%

 

Acute Response Protein

Check Item

Check Result

Reference Range

CRP

116mg/L

<20mg/L

Biochemical Tests

Check Item

Check Result

Reference Range

ALB

2.4g/dl

2.3-4.0

ALKP

225u/l

23-212

ALT

56u/l

10-100

AMYL

725u/l

500-1500

BUN

31mg/dl

16-36

CA

8.3mg/dl

7.8-11.3

CHOL

71mg/dl

65-225

CREA

2.0mg/dl

0.8-2.4

GLU

68mg/dl

74-159

PHOS

6.5mg/dl

3.1-7.5

TBIL

0.04mg/dl

0.0-0.9

TP

5.7g/dl

5.7-8.9

GLOB

3.6g/dl

2.8-5.1

X-ray film
Diagnosis and treatment of a case of canine pneumonia Diagnosis and treatment of a case of canine pneumonia

Canine distemper, negative canine influenza virus screening, blood routine white blood cells, lymphocytes increased, indicating inflammation, a slight decrease in red blood cells indicates anemia, and an increase in acute response protein indicates severe infection. A slight reduction in biochemical index proteins and a small drop in blood sugar means that the body has reduced protein intake or insufficient synthesis.

X-ray films showed increased radiopacity of the lung lobes and enlargement of the heart, indicating inflammation in both the left and right lobes and an abnormal gut. Further echocardiography is recommended.

4: Diagnosis and Treatment

1. Diagnosis: Preliminary Canine Pneumonia
2. Treatment:
1.10.9%NACL20ML nebulization treatment increases the moisture in the respiratory tract, which is conducive to the discharge of sputum after dilution. 20min once a day for three consecutive days
1.2LRS50ML+5%GS50ML+energy group 0.25ML/bottle intravenous injection speed 5ML/H
1.3 Ma Buddha 3 capsules, once a day, half a capsule, for five consecutive days
1.4 Potassium Amoxicillin Clavulanate 50MG 14 capsules two times a day, one capsule each time
1.5 Hulitong 3 times a day, 3ML each time

5: Notes

1. It isn’t easy to find the exact cause in clinical practice. Generally, broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs are used first. If the treatment effect is not good or recurrent attacks need to be further checked for mycoplasma and Bordetella, then treated according to the results of the bacterial culture and drug sensitivity test.
2. In clinical practice, if pulmonary edema occurs, diuretic treatment is required. If there is no diuretic treatment, it is forbidden because reducing body water will also reduce the moisture in respiratory secretions, making it more difficult to discharge sputum.
3. For dry cough or wheezing animals, bronchodilator drugs such as aminophylline can be given.
4. When animals with dyspnea go to the doctor, they need to inhale oxygen in time to reduce the life-threatening phenomenon of respiratory distress.
5. The risk of anesthesia increases when tracheal sampling for cytological examination and drug sensitivity tests when breathing is complex, so avoid selection at this time.
6. Keep warm, feed medicine on time, drink plenty of water, and do not take a bath or go out to play.
7. Since there is no further investigation of the heart condition, it is recommended not to do strenuous activities in daily feeding but to rest mainly and to perform echocardiography or early BNP examination of the heart as soon as possible.

6: Prognosis

After three days of medication, the dog’s mental appetite returned to normal, the frequency of coughing decreased significantly, and there was also coughing and vomiting. After seven days of medication, there were no symptoms of coughing and coughing sputum, and the mental appetite was average. Blood routine, acute reaction protein, and inflammation returned to normal during the follow-up visit, and the prognosis was good.

Diagnosis and treatment of a case of canine pneumonia

7: Disease pathogenesis and prevention

The causes of this disease are very complex and can be infectious, inflammatory, and inhalational. The pathogen can be divided into viral, bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and mixed infections. The most common viral and bacterial infections. The pathogens of canine viral infection can include canine distemper virus, canine influenza virus, canine parainfluenza virus, adenovirus type 2, canine herpes virus, and canine respiratory coronavirus, and these viral infections are common in the upper respiratory tract. The cause of infectious bacterial pneumonia is that the pathogenic bacteria overcome the body’s defense mechanism or a high concentration of pathogenic pathogens enter the respiratory tract, which may cause the failure of the respiratory defense mechanism, such as systemic immunosuppression, inhalation of foreign bodies or corrosive substances and so on. Intestinal bacteria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Bordetella, etc., can all cause bacterial pneumonia. The prevalence of fungal pneumonia varies in geographical distribution, and there may be cryptococcus, Histoplasma, and black mold. Neospora, Pneumocystis carinii, Toxoplasma gondii, Strongyloides, etc. may cause parasitic pneumonia. Inflammatory pneumonia may have parasite-induced eosinophilic infiltration of bronchopulmonary disease.
Aspiration pneumonia is a severe and life-threatening inflammatory or infectious lung disease: chemical pneumonitis, inflammatory lung response, and development of bacterial pneumonia due to inhalation of irritant substances. The most common cause is vomiting, reflux, or throat disease. After anesthesia, inhalation of gastric contents damages lung epithelial cells, reduces alveolar surface tension, causes atelectasis and damage, and leads to secondary bacterial infection, low Ventilation or hypoxia, etc. Severe inhalation injury increases alveolar capillary permeability and develops acute respiratory distress, leading to noncardiogenic pulmonary edema.
Prevention: 
Vaccination on time, regular deworming, and balanced nutrition are required in daily feeding, increase body resistance, and dry the back hair in time when taking a full body bath to avoid catching a cold, which will cause the body to catch a cold and get sick. It is necessary to keep warm in an environment with a significant temperature difference. If economic conditions permit, regular physical examinations are required to understand the animal’s body condition, so prevention is better than cure.

Diagnosis and treatment of a canine bladder calculus

Abstract

Canine bladder calculus is a common urinary tract system disease in dogs. It is a disease in which many mineral crystals and stones accumulate in the bladder of dogs. Clinically, it is characterized by abdominal pain, dysuria, and hematuria. Common uroliths can be divided into struvite, calcium oxalate uroliths, urate uroliths, cystic acid uroliths, and siliceous uroliths. According to statistics, Pekingese, Schnauzer, and Shih Tzu are the most affected dogs. The average age of onset is two years old. Male dogs are more likely to be affected than female dogs. Male dogs mainly have bladder stones accompanied by urethral stones, while female dogs mainly have bladder stones alone.

This article is a case of successful surgical treatment of bladder stones treated in a clinical outpatient clinic and is organized as follows.

1: Case information

1. Name: Xiao Hei
2. Breed: Cocker Spaniel
3. Age: 10 years old
4. Gender: male
5. Consultation time: 2022.12.11

2: Medical history investigation

1. Medical problems: poor appetite, hematuria, difficulty urinating, pain
2. Main statement: The dog has been urinating blood for two months. Before that, the appetite and stool were normal. From time to time, there will be blood in the back part of the urine. I think the dog is old, and I don’t want to toss it, so I didn’t take it to the doctor. Recently, it has been found that the dog has a loss of appetite, urination is not smooth, and there will be pain. The owner fed the dog Sanjin Tablets at home, but it did not improve, so he brought it to the doctor. The dog usually eats human food omnivorously. The dog has not been dewormed recently, has not been immunized with booster vaccines on time, and has not vomited.

3: Physical examination

1. Overall inspection
BCS: 4/9, good body condition, smooth fur, no dander, no dehydration, normal limbs, and bones
2. General inspection
BW: 16KG T: 38.6℃ HR: 120/min RR: 25/min
3. System check
Auscultate arrhythmia, palpate the abdomen for bladder pain and resist
4. Laboratory examination
Inspection items: blood routine, acute reaction protein, biochemistry, X-ray

Diagnosis and treatment of a canine bladder calculus

Blood Routine

Check Item

Test Result

Reference Range

WBC

15.5*10^9/L

6.0-17.0

LYMPH

4.0*10^9/L

0.8-5.1

MON

0.7*10^9/L

0.0-1.9

GRAN

10.8*10^9/L

4.0-12.6

LYMPH%

25.7%

12.0-30.0

MON%

4.75

2.0-9.0

GRAN%

69.6%

60.0-83.0

RBC

6.64*10^12/L

5.50-8.50

HGB

141g/L

110-190

HCT

47.7%

39.0-56.0

MCV

71.9fL

62.0-72.0

MCH

21.2pg

20.0-25.0

MCHC

295g/L

300-380

RDW

16%

11.0-15.5

PLT

440*10^9/L

117-460

MPV

7.3fL

7.0-12.9

PDW

16

 

PCT

0.321%

 

EOS%

3.9%

 

Acute Response Protein

Check Item

Test Result

Reference Range

CRP

42mg/L

<20mg/L

Biochemical

Check Item

Test Result

Reference Range

ALB

1.7g/dl

2.3-4.0

ALKP

38u/l

23-212

ALT

17u/l

10-100

AMYL

588u/l

500-1500

BUN

27mg/dl

16-36

CA

10.8mg/dl

7.8-11.3

CHOL

151mg/dl

65-225

CREA

1.3mg/dl

0.8-2.4

GLU

104mg/dl

74-159

PHOS

3.4mg/dl

3.1-7.5

TBIL

0.1mg/dl

0.0-0.9

TP

6.7g/dl

5.7-8.9

GLOB

3.8g/dl

2.8-5.1

X-ray
Diagnosis and treatment of a canine bladder calculus
Blood test results: regular blood routine, normal biochemical liver and kidney function, mild elevation of acute reaction protein, acute inflammation of the body, X-ray film showed bladder stones. The owner did not do further B-ultrasound examination due to economic considerations.

4: Diagnosis and Treatment

Diagnosis: bladder stones
Treatment: surgical removal
Pre-operative medication:
1. Subcutaneous injection of atropine 0.05ML/KG
2. Subcutaneous injection of butorphanol 0.1ML/KG
3. Cefotaxime 0.1ML/KG subcutaneously
4. Intubation for respiratory anesthesia after induction of anesthesia
5. Catheterization is performed first to facilitate intraoperative flushing and postoperative urination

In surgery
1. Intravenous infusion of lidocaine diluted in one limb for intraoperative pain management and cardiac rhythm stabilization
2. Intravenous infusion of Lactated Ringer Sodium on the other side branch to maintain blood pressure
3. Surgical site: the surgical area is shaved and disinfected, and an incision is made on the abdominal wall close to the bladder, 3-5 cm away, the bladder is pulled out of the wound, and the urine in the bladder is drawn out with a syringe. The bladder is cut open, the stones are removed, and the bladder is flushed and sutured. After checking the airtightness of the bladder, it is returned to the abdominal cavity. The abdominal cavity is closed routinely, and the skin is sutured.

Medication after surgery:
1.5% 100ML + energy group 1.6ML/bottle, intravenous infusion of 30ML/H for three consecutive days
2.0.9%NACL100ML+Ceftriaxone 1.6ML intravenous infusion of 30ML/H for three consecutive days
3.0.9%NACL100ML+1ML Potassium Chloride Intravenous infusion 15ML/H a day
4. Ringer sodium lactate 200ML + vitamin B complex 1ML intravenous infusion 30ML/H for three consecutive days
5. Baili 1.6ML subcutaneous injection once a day for five consecutive days
6. Subcutaneous injection of Zhixuemin 1.6ML to see if there is blood in the urine
7. Ketezhuang 1.6ML subcutaneous injection once a day for five consecutive days
8. Elizabeth Circle
9. A piece of surgical gown
10. Wound Spray
11. Dog urinary tract prescription food one pack
12. Gou Shu Chang (fossil drug) twice a day, two capsules at a time, for 14 consecutive days

Postoperative pictures
Diagnosis and treatment of a canine bladder calculus

Suggestion: Send the stones to relevant laboratories for component analysis, but the owner gave up sending them for examination due to economic considerations.

5: Precautions

1. Aseptic operation should be strictly observed during the process. If the gloves are contaminated by urine or stones during bladder incision, sterile gloves should be replaced in time. After the rocks are removed, repeated washing is required to avoid residual stones in the bladder neck and proximal urethra. After suturing, it is necessary to maintain the tightness of the bladder to prevent the leakage of urine and abdominal infection.
2. Surgery to remove the stones in the bladder, still in a dangerous state after the operation, need to be hospitalized for 24 hours to 72 hours after the procedure to observe the breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, and other conditions.
3.Other systemic lesions may be secondary to the operation, such as renal failure, liver, spleen heterotopia, hemorrhage, and atrophy of the adrenal cortex and medulla. The postoperative risk period is one week, and death may occur within one week.
4. After the operation, it needs to be treated for at least five days, and the drug can be stopped after rechecking the corresponding indicators. During the hospitalization, the wound and urine should be observed.
5. The medication may be adjusted at any time during hospitalization. The dog needs to wear an Elizabeth ring, and the urinary catheter should be checked regularly to avoid the dog biting and causing it to fall off.
6. Nutritious diet, diuretic infusion, drinking plenty of water
7. For wound care, the urinary catheter is usually removed in 5 days, and the stitches are removed after a week.

6: Prognosis

One week later, the stitches were removed, and the wound was normal. On the fifth day, after the removal of the urinary catheter, urination was expected, the spirit, appetite, and defecation were all normal, and the prognosis was good.

7: Disease pathogenesis and prevention

Bladder calculus is a kind of canine urinary tract calculus, which refers to the occurrence of an inorganic salt or organic solute crystals in the bladder to stimulate the bladder, causing inflammation, bleeding, and other symptoms. There are many organic and inorganic solute components in urine. When some specific reasons occur (such as changes in food, water, or urine pH, certain crystallization-promoting factors, etc.), the solubility of certain solutes changes and crystals are formed. These crystals aggregate and grow to form stones, or other organic components, such as epithelial cells, inflammatory cells, red blood cells, bacteria, etc., join to form stone cores. Stones form when crystals stay in the urine long enough, so increasing your fluid intake and, therefore, more frequent urination may reduce stone formation. Stone components can be divided into single parts and composite components. According to different stone components, the pathological formation mechanism is other. Some stones can be dissolved, such as ammonium magnesium phosphate stones, which can be treated conservatively with excessive drinking or infusion to increase urine, dilute urine and improve the solubility of rocks so that the body can excrete them by itself. Suppose the stone cannot be dissolved, such as calcium oxalate stone, and has already caused a series of clinical symptoms in the body. In that case, it is recommended to remove it by surgery as soon as possible to avoid acute kidney injury caused by secondary infection or urethral obstruction.

The diagnosis and treatment of genitourinary tumours

Abstract

Vaginal tumor is a common tumor in the reproductive organs of female dogs. It obstructs the birth canal, affects the growth and breeding performance of dogs, and even causes the loss of mating and breeding ability of female dogs. A vaginal tumor, also known as a vaginal polyp, is a common tumor in female reproductive organs, accounting for about 64% of genital tract tumors in dogs. Uterine prolapse and vaginal neoplasms are challenging to distinguish from vaginal prolapse/hyperplasia. The most common vagino-vaginal tumors are fibroleiomyoma, lipoma leiomyosarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and metastatic tumors. Most public vaginal tumors occur in older (≥10 years) unneutered females. Benign vaginal-vaginal tumors are most common and are subject to local excision. Fibroleiomyoma is the most common benign tumor. Fibroleiomyomas originate around the urethral process and are usually pedicled, smooth, firm, and pale. The most common malignancies are infectious ones. These tumors tend to be broad, irregular, brittle, and bleed easily. Malignant vaginal-vaginal neoplasms are usually locally invasive and metastasize to local lymph nodes at an early stage. Non-neoplastic differential diagnoses include vaginal cysts, hydrocolloids, and septum or congenital malformations.
Keywords: Vaginal tumor; Fibroma; sterilization

Basic information

Name: DU DU
Breed: Mixed
Sex: Female (castrated)
Age: 6 years old
Body weight: 3.8kg
History: outdoor activities, complete vaccination, no deworming, vaginal bleeding one year ago 
The owner fed her at home this year. Not playing outdoors during this time. Three days ago, the dog started to appear lethargic and weak. The owner found it walking in an incoordinate post and bleeding from the ass. So decided to take her to the hospital. Vaccinate history is completed.No deworming this year.

Physical examination

Body weight 3.8kg, temperature 38.6℃, respiratory rate was 20/minheart rate126 beats/min. No prominent murmurs in breathing and cardiophony. Mouth mucosa was pinkcapillary refill time(CRT)<2sbody condition score(BCS)was 5/9, which can touch the ribs in palpation. The patient presented with depression. Abdominal palpation was no obvious abnormal finding in the abdomen. There were mild dental calculus and gingivitis in an oral examination. Multiple areas of skin were soft. Obvious dehydration was not found. The vaginal was found with a type of bright red mass, like a ball; the size of it was about 5cm*3cm*3cm, with perineal distension. The overturned mucosa may protrude from the vulva or be touched with the fingers in the vagina.

The diagnosis and treatment of genitourinary tumoursThe diagnosis and treatment of genitourinary tumours

Laboratory examination
Complete Blood Count (CBC) examination

Project

Result

Reference Range

WBC

7.0×109/L

5.5~19.5

RBC

7.0 x 1012/L

4.6~10.0

HGB

165g/L↑

93~153

HCT

50.5%↑

28.0~49.0

MCV

71 fL↑

39.0~52.0

MCH

23.3pg↑

13.0~21.0

MCHC

327g/L

300~380

PLT

557×109/L

100~514

LYM%

16%

12.0~45.0

OTHR%

77.3%

45~86

EO%

6.7%

2~10

Interpretation: No obvious abnormality was observed in the leukocyte line. Mild highs with HGB, MCV, MCH, and HCT indicate dehydration, and we can not ignore the possibility of anemia in the patient because of the bleeding.

Idexx Catalyst biochemistry CHEM15

Project

Reference Range

Result

ALT

12-130

84U/L

ALKP

14111

34U/L

TBIL

0-15

6umol/L

AMYL

500-1500

542U/L

BUN

2.5-9.6

5.5mmol/L

CREA

44-159

70umol/L

ALB

2546

32g/L

PHOS

1.0-2.42

0.78mmol/dL

TP

57-89

71g/L

GLU

4.11-8.4

5.89umol/L

GLOB

28-51

38umol/L

Ca

1.95-2.83

2mmol/L

Interpretation: There was a normal result of the biochemistries, so the further case of this disease had to find by the other examination.
The result of the CRP testing

Project

Result

Reference Range

CRP

18.6mg/L

<20mg/L

Interpretation: The result of CRP was normal; the inflammatory should be evaluated in conjunction with another examination outcome.
Blood agglutination test

Project

Result

Reference Range

APTT

16.8

15-43

PT

10.2

5-16

Interpretation: The result of the blood agglutination test was normal; the function of blood coagulation may be normal, and the outcome should be evaluated in conjunction with another examination result.
Microscope of the cytology with the mass
The diagnosis and treatment of genitourinary tumours

Interpretation: Multiple nucleated red cells and inflammatory cells were seen at high field, which was an indicator of inflammatory hyperplasia with the mass. More examinations were suggested to have a more precise diagnosis.

The result of the pathological examination
The diagnosis and treatment of genitourinary tumours The diagnosis and treatment of genitourinary tumours

Interpretation: Vaginal mass is original with fibroma. Cell-derived tumors are common in the lower reproductive tract. These tumors form stiff nodules in the lumen structure, narrowing and twisting the lumen. Leiomyoma and fibroma are common vaginal tumors in female dogs. Fibroma is a benign tumor, primarily hard to the touch, white and spherical in appearance, and composed of fibrous cells and a rich connective tissue matrix. This specimen has a well-differentiated pattern, representing benign tumor behavior.

Diagnosis

Vaginal fibroma
The diagnosis methods in Canine Vaginal tumors usually used in clinical consist of the complete blood count, urinalysis, cytology of vaginal smear, serum biochemistries, abdomen ultrasound, needle aspirate, cytology of mass or tumor, biopsy and histopathology of mass or tumor, vaginal examination. The evidence of the cytology was not found, obviously, so it was necessary to take the histopathology of the group to make a diagnosis. However, it was expensive and a waste of time sometimes. Luckily, the tumor was benign.

Treatment

1. Surgical therapy: surgically excised the benign fibroma tumors
2. Cefotaxime 50mg/kg i.v q 12h
3. Meloxicam 2mg/kg s.c on the first day, then the dosage changed to 1mg/kg
4. 0.9%Nacl + LRS 1:1 get 40mL/kg/d
Prognosis varies by tumor type. Benign tumors usually have a good prognosis because most are cured with surgery. Malignant tumors require more extensive surgical resection than benign tumors for local control, but the risk of metastasis remains low. In one report, the average survival time for dogs with benign tumors was 18 months, compared with 11 months for those with benign tumors—a dog with a malignant tumor. However, no dogs with benign tumors died, and only 1 in 17 dogs with malignant tumors died from tumor-related causes. The reported recurrence rate was 14%; However, when ovaries and hysterectomies are performed simultaneously, the recurrence rate of benign tumors is close to zero. A study of five dogs with clitoral tumors treated with prednisolone, surgery, or surgery plus carboplatin reported a survival time of 100-500 days. One survived 420 days, and the other 500 days. One of the dogs that did not receive treatment stayed for only seven days.
In this case, the prognosis is good after therapy, and the monitoring of the vaginal bleeding is needed monthly for tumor recurrence.
The diagnosis and treatment of genitourinary tumours The diagnosis and treatment of genitourinary tumours

Conclusion

Erythrocytes(Red blood cells) can be found in normal canine vaginal cytology and are associated with postestrus, estrus, and early diarrhea arrest. The persistent fever with pink to reddish-brown estrus vaginal discharge usually lasts 5 to 10 days, but estrus can last up to 3 weeks. It has been reported that female dogs that are generally pregnant give birth. Postpartum rufous lochia is more common at 2 to 3 weeks postpartum. Lochia should be odorless and decrease in number during the first few weeks after pupping. Most uterine remodeling, including the loss of collagen clumps associated with the placenta site, is completed at 6 to 8 weeks postpartum. Vaginal discharge beyond this stage is uncommon. Normal regeneration and repair of the endometrium are conducted at 12 to 14 weeks postpartum.

Reproductive Tract Disorders
For any dog with persistent vaginal bleeding, a reproductive history should be obtained, including all previous thermal cycles and the timing of breeding. Systemic or non-reproductive tract diseases (as described above) should be assessed. Blood counts, biochemical data, and urine analysis constitute a minimal database for these patients. A colposcopy should be performed to help locate bleeding and assess visible lesions in the vulva and vestibule. Vaginal swabs should be collected to determine if the peel vaginal cytology is consistent with the phase of the estrus cycle expected from the reproductive history. Hormonal analysis (estrogen levels, progesterone assay) may be helpful in further determining the reproductive status of the bitch.

Proestrus/Estrus
The symptoms of over three weeks of male attractiveness, receptivity to erections, and menstrual bleeding are not typical. Vaginal exfoliation cytology during estrus should show mainly large intermediate and keratinized epithelial cells. Occasionally, dogs, especially female dogs in development, will show “split estrus,” which may be a sustained estrus for pet owners or a shortened interval between estrus. During early follicular development, these dogs may show evidence of estrogen effects, including swelling of the vulva and serological discharge that may last for several days. These signs weaken for 1 to 3 weeks and then resume during “true” estrus. Ovulation usually occurs during the second half of the division fever, and fertility seems normal if the dog is bred. Uninterrupted, the persistent estrus with behavioral signs and the preponderance of superficial epithelial cells on the cytology of the vagina for more than three weeks requires a complete diagnostic evaluation. Constant vulvar discharge during heat may result from inflammation, infection, or structural lesions similar to urinary incontinence or neutered bitch. Female dogs with genital tract inflammation often attract male dogs but are rarely receptive to being mounted unless they are in heat. Copulation-related trauma can cause persistent vaginal bleeding. Prolonged estrus can occur in dogs treated with estrogen or progesterone to prevent or terminate unwanted pregnancies. Ovarian cysts and tumors are occasionally associated with persistent estrus. Non-productive cysts (such as reticulum of ovary cysts, subsurface epithelial structure cysts, or parafollicular cysts) are more common than cystic or luteinized follicular cysts that secrete hormones. The blisters and voids in the developing corpus luteum are typical cystic structures in the canine ovary. Most dogs with cystic follicles show a decreasing frequency of initiation rather than persistent estrus or nymphomorrhea. Huskies and golden retrievers may be susceptible to prolific ovarian cysts (7 of the 13 female dogs found at Colorado State University in 1982-1986 belonged to these two breeds and were in constant estrus). The animals ranged in age from 7 months to 9.5 years, with a median age of 16 months. Ovarian tumors usually occur in older dogs (median age 10-12 years), but ovarian teratoma often occurs in dogs younger than five years (median age = 4 years).

Both sex cord-stromal tumors (granulosa cell tumor, sertolystromal cell tumor) and germinal cell tumors (germinal cell abnormal tumor, teratoma) showed increased estrogen. In the 71 primary ovarian tumors studied at the Animal Medical Center, epithelial tumors (adenomas, adenocarcinomas) were more common (46%) than sex cord-stromal tumors (34%) or germ cell tumors (20%). Granulosa cell tumor (GCT) is dogs’ most common hormone-producing ovarian tumor. GCT may be unilateral or bilateral, and 10-25% have metastasis or local invasion at diagnosis. Hormone-active tumors may be less evident on examination of the affected ovaries or may grow to a considerable size (up to 4,000 cm3) at the time of diagnosis. Ovarian tumors should be suspected when an elderly female dog continues to be in estrus. Abdominal ultrasound is beneficial for evaluating the uterus and ovaries in dogs with persistent estrus. Normal follicles rarely exceed 0.5 cm in diameter. Cysts were found on ultrasound in 9 of the 11 dogs described by the report.

The concentration of sex hormones in the serum is helpful in the case of prolonged estrus. Estrogen peaks at 60-70 pg/mL late in estrus and begins to decline before LH surges. Estrus levels are usually 8 to 15 pg/mL. Progesterone levels rise before estrus at 0.5-1.0 ng/mL when LH peaks and grow after ovulation. Peak progesterone (15-90ng /mL) was reached 15-30 days after peak LH. Progesterone levels drop to 4-6 ng/mL during the last third of pregnancy and fall below 1-2 ng/mL just before delivery. In non-pregnant female dogs, progesterone gradually returns to estrus levels <1.0 ng/mL at 60 to 110 days. Serum estrogen levels exceeded estrus levels in 6 out of 11 dogs with reproductive ovarian cysts and 5 out of 5 dogs with ovarian tumors. Mildly elevated progesterone levels were found in 3 of 13 dogs with reproductive ovarian cysts and 1 of 7 with ovarian tumors (2.0-6.0 ng/mL). Aspiration (ultrasound-guided or laparotomy) of cystic areas within ovarian cysts or ovarian tumors revealed high levels of estrogen +/- progesterone in several dogs with persistent estrus, including some animals with serum values in the normal range. In many patients, exploratory laparotomy and ovariohysterectomy may be necessary for a definitive diagnosis.

The diagnosis and treatment of Canine diabetes mellitus

Abstract

Diabetes Mellitus is classified as DM. It is a common disease in the canine. The lack of insulin in the animal body leads to the inability to use the sugar in the body. The ability of the animal is obtained through the digestion of its own fat. At this time, ketone bodies are produced, and a large number of ketone bodies will acidify the body and cause acidosis. Diabetic animals are unable to use glucose in the blood, and the use of fat leads to fat accumulation in the liver, which gradually leads to liver damage, such as fatty liver disease. This case of DM had a symptom of consistency anemia, which is considered to be liver disease leading to the oxidation of the red blood cells. Also, anemia is due to other inflammation in the body. At the same time, because of the animal’s long-term anorexia, the intake of hematopoietic nutrients is insufficient will also aggravate anemia; Anemia is more pronounced after treatment with fluids during dehydration.
Keywords: Canine, DM, anemia, diagnosis, treatment

Basic information

Name: XIAO GUI ZI
Breed: Poodle
Sex: Female (not-castrated)
Age: 7 years old
Body weight8.5 kg
HistoryComplete vaccination and deworming, infection disease when she was young, performed polydipsia and diuresis two years ago
The owner fed her at home these years and found she appeared to drink and urinate more than usual two years ago. She would eat humanity’s food, such as chicken, rice, and pork, in usual.No contact with other animals and humans. Three months ago, the patient’s eyesight started to get nasty, which was not found when checked in the hospital. Three days ago, the patient began to lose appetite and was weak. The owner found it in low spirits and vomited after eating a sweet potato. So decided to take her to the hospital. Vaccinate records is completed, and deworming is this year.

Physical examination

Body weight 8.5 kg, temperature 38.7℃,respiratory rate was 44/min, heart rate: 110 beats/min—a little abnormal murmurs in heart beating. Mouth mucosa was mild yellow, capillary refill time(CRT)<2s, the patient was fat, and the body condition score(BCS)was 3/9, which can touch the ribs in palpation. The affected person becomes offered an incredibly miserable situation—dry coat and nose. Abdominal palpation was found nothing obvious abnormal. There were moderate dental calculus and gingivitis in an oral exam. The surface hair of the skin becomes the day. The dehydration was evaluated at 5%. In palpation, the rate of the femoral artery changed identically to the heart price. The lymph gland on the surface skin was normal.

Laboratory examination
Complete Blood Count (CBC) examination

Project

Result

Reference Range

WBC

24.6×103/uL

6.0~17.0

RBC

5.24×106/uL

5.5~10

HGB

10.5g/dL

12.0~18.0

HCT

31.6%

37~55

MCV

60.4fL

60~77

MCH

20.0pg

19~24.5

MCHC

33.2/dL

30~37

PLT

329×103/uL

200~500

LYM

4.0

0.8-5.1

MON

1.2

0.0-1.8

GRAN

19.4

4.0-12.6

LYMPH

16.1

12.0-30.0

MON

4.9

2.0-9.0

GRAN

79.0

60.0-83.0

Interpretation: There was a mild increase in the OTHER%. Red blood cell count and HCT indicate a possibility of dehydration that may have a low liquid volume, combined with the performance of the patient, but they were still in the reference range.

Idexx Catalyst biochemistry CHEM17

Project

Result

Reference Range

GLU

35.12

3.89-7.95

CREA

107

44-159

UREA

27.2

2.5-9.6

BUN/CREA

63

 

PHOS

2.00

0.81-2.2

CA

1.96

1.98-3

ALB

69

52-82

TP

27

22-39

GLOB

41

25-45

ALB/GLB

0.7

 

ALT

78

10-125

ALKP

471

23-212

GGT

2

0-11

TBIL

40

0-15

CHOL

7.74

2.84-8.26

AMYL

653

500-1500

LIPA

2211

200-1800

MG

0.28

0.58-0.99

NH3

25

0-98

Interpretation: There was an obvious increase in ALT, and CREA, which is a cue for cell injury and dehydration.No obvious abnormalities in other biochemical indicators.

The result of the CRP testing

Project

Result

Reference Range

CRP

5 mg/L

<10mg/L

Interpretation:The result of CRP was normal.

The result of the blood gas analysis

Project

Result

Reference Range

Na

120

139-150

K

3.6

3.4-4.9

Cl

86

106-127

TCO2

13

17-25

BUN

70

10-26

GLU

653

60-115

HCT

33

35-50

pH

7.294

7.35-7.45

PCO2

24.3

35-38

HCO3-

11.8

15-23

BEEcf

-15

-5-0

AnGap

26

8-25

Hb

11.2

12-17

Interpretation:The result of CRP was normal.

The diagnosis and treatment of Canine diabetes mellitus
The diagnosis and treatment of Canine diabetes mellitus

Picture 1 stomach

Picture 2 duodenum

The diagnosis and treatment of Canine diabetes mellitus
The diagnosis and treatment of Canine diabetes mellitus

Picture 3 ovary

Picture 4 gall bladder

The diagnosis and treatment of Canine diabetes mellitus
The diagnosis and treatment of Canine diabetes mellitus

Picture 5 cornua uteri

Picture 6 pancreas

Interpretation:Gastric effusion; Duodenal intestinal effusion; Gallbladder full, a small amount of cholestasis; Bilateral ovary enlargement; Endometrium echo is uneven; The echo of pancreatic parenchyma was more diffuse.

Diagnosis

Diabetes Mellitus
The diagnosis methods for Canine diabetes mellitus usually used in veterinary clinics consist of the physical examination findings or history, laboratory examination such as complete blood count, cytology, biochemistry panel, urinalysis, urine culture, fructosamine measurement, A1C test(more used commonly to monitor diabetes mellitus in people), thyroid assays, pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity, ACTH stimulation test, abdominal ultrasound imaging, dexamethasone suppression tests, blood pressure measurement.
Some clinical signs are common, such as polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss, dehydration, lethargy, muscle wasting, poor hair coat, and even eye symptom like cataract formation.

Treatment

(1)Neutral protamine hagedorn(NPH) 0.25u/kg s.c q12hrs
(2)Maropitan 1mg/kg s.c q24hrs
(3)Amoxicillin clavulanic acid 25mg/kg p.o q12hrs
(4)Lactated Ringer’s liquid + KCL liquid get 10mL/h/kg
(5)Dietary of high-fiber food
(6)SHENGMINGYUAN(polyethylene glycol bovine hemoglobin conjugate)5mL i.v q24hrs
Infusion with liquid to correct dehydration and acidosis; antiemesis to control gastrointestinal symptoms, antibiotics to control inflammation; Add potassium and magnesium ions; Use insulin infusion therapy to manage blood sugar; Blood gas and blood sugar are monitored daily. No vomiting was observed the next day, and feeding began. On the third day of review, indicators improved, reducing the amount of fluid; On the fourth day, transient blood glucose was installed, and insulin injection was used to manage blood glucose. Their mental appetite recovered after a week in the hospital. Blood sugar occasionally rises.
The rechecking results showed that most indicators had improved. Among them, blood routine showed the anemia continued, considering infusion during hospitalization, which led to diluting red blood cells. The elevating white blood cell numbers may be the result of persistent uterine diseases such as progesterone; ALKP continued to increase, primarily due to liver, bone, and steroid effects. Kidney, intestinal tract, and placental products are rare, whether to consider the presence of false pregnancy in animals.
In consideration of the increasing age of the animal, the owner did not make a further diagnosis and was discharged from the hospital to recuperate at home. He took oral medicine for a week, injected insulin at home twice a day, 2U each time, monitored blood sugar, and took metronidazole and zonal orally to control infection and inflammation. Take a nourishing oral solution to replenish blood. Two weeks later, the prognosis was good, the dog’s spirit and appetite were typical, and the body weight increased by 0.1 kg. Regularly rechecking is needed.

Conclusion

Definition and signalment
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrine disease characterized by absolute or relative insulin deficiency in cats and dogs. There are three types of diabetes:
1) Type I: Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM): insufficient insulin secretion leads to an absolute lack of insulin and relies on external insulin supplementation. Type I diabetes, the most common form in dogs, may be caused by autoimmune destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas that secrete insulin.
2) Type II: none insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus(NIDDM) is characterized by beta cell dysfunction, which leads to impaired insulin secretion, and peripheral insulin resistance. Insulin production may be normal or increased; However, insulin is not enough to prevent high blood sugar. Abnormal insulin secretion combined with insulin resistance leads to stable re-regulation of blood glucose levels at higher concentrations. Type 2 diabetes is sometimes reversible, meaning the disease can go into remission. Type 2 diabetes occurs in cats, not dogs.
3) Type III: gestational hormone-induced diabetes, which occurs when insulin resistance is associated with high concentrations of progesterone or other prediabetic hormones (such as cortisol, adrenaline, growth hormone, and glucagon). Both cats and dogs are reported to have Type III diabetes.

Physiology of pathology
The role of insulin: The existence of insulin is mainly in the liver, muscle, and fat cells. Its primary function is to promote the storage of glucose to be glycogen, amino acids to be protein, and fatty acids to be overweight. Insulin also promotes glycogen synthesis and gluconeogenesis, reducing liver enzymes that convert amino acids into glucose. Insulin promotes lipid synthesis and inhibits lipid degradation. Insulin promotes positive nitrogen balance by stimulating protein synthesis and inhibiting protein degradation.

The effects of insulin deficiency: In the case of absolute or relative insulin deficiency, the flow of glucose into the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue is reduced. The liver also produces more glucose through increased gluconeogenesis and glycogen breakdown, which leads to high blood sugar. Once the kidney’s ability to reabsorb glucose is exceeded, glucose is lost through the urine, resulting in osmotic diuresis. When insulin is deficient, protein synthesis decreases, and protein catabolism increases. These effects can lead to loss of muscle mass and negative nitrogen balance, a lipid metabolism disorder. The Increasing non-esterified fatty acids are transported to the liver, leading to hepatic steatosis and hyperlipidemia. The increase in ketone bodies eventually leads to ketoacidosis.

The cause of Immune-mediated disease: Diabetes is considered to be a multi-factorial disease. In most dogs, it is believed that the immune-mediated process leads to the destruction of insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells, resulting in absolute insulin deficiency. Various beta-cell antibodies have been found in people with type 1 diabetes; However, no large-scale anti-cellular antibody studies have been conducted in dogs. One report found anti-beta cell antibodies in 9 out of 23 newly diagnosed diabetic dogs. Another report found the anti-beta cell antibody GAD65 in 4 out of 30(13%) newly diagnosed diabetic dogs. In contrast, about 85 percent of newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes patients have antibodies to GAD65.Pancreatitis.Chronic pancreatitis leads to the progressive destruction of insulin-secreting cells, as well as glucagon-secreting cells. Chronic pancreatitis is secondary to about 30% of canine cases. Lipemia, a high-fat diet, and obesity are associated with the origin of pancreatitis and may contribute to the development of diabetes.

Genetics
Genetics also plays a role in canine diabetes mellitus. Some breeds of dogs have a genetic predisposition, while others have a lower risk of diabetes. Breed susceptibility varies geographically and may be related to genetic influences. The specific genetic determinants of canine diabetes are not well defined. Associations between diabetes risk and single nucleotide polymorphisms were found in the insulin gene region of the Jack Russell terrier and Cocker Spaniel and cytotoxic t lymphocyte-associated protein 4 in several breeds. A pattern of polygenic inheritance has been found in American Eskimo dogs. The genetic determinants of dogs may be related to the canine leukocyte antigen (DLA) gene encoding major histocompatibility complex Class II (MHC-II). MHC-II is responsible for presenting antigens to T lymphocytes. In theory, MHC genes benefit the positive selection of anti-pancreatic t cells in high-risk patients.

Other Causes
Exposure to elevated levels of progesterone during pregnancy can lead to glucose intolerance and gestational diabetes in dogs. Exposure to excessive amounts of other diabetes hormones (growth hormone, cortisol) can also lead to diabetes. Hyperadrenocorticosis is a common diagnosis in diabetic dogs. In a study of 35 dogs with multiple endocrine disorders, 20/35(57.1%) had both diabetes and hyperadrenocorticism activity. Another study of 221 dogs with diabetes reported that 51 (23%) also had hyperadrenocorticism training. Streptozotocin use can cause diabetes in dogs. While obesity may indirectly influence the development of diabetes, no direct link has been found between the two.

The prognosis
Except for the brief periods of type III diabetes (such as pregnancy), diabetes in dogs does not go into remission, and treatment is usually life-long. In a study of 439 dogs, the median survival time (MST) after diagnosis was 17.3 months. In another study of 860 dogs, MST was two years (excluding patients who died within a day of diagnosis). Another study of 68 dogs reported an MST of 964 days. However, many diabetic dogs are euthanized because owners are frustrated with the cost of treatment and the time commitment of managing the disease. Therefore, educating the owners; Setting reasonable expectations; Constant communication is essential. In some cases, it may be helpful to use a quality-of-life questionnaire.

The diagnosis and treatment of Canine Chylothorse

Abstract

Chylothorse can occur in dogs and cats of all ages, Afghan hounds, and Shiba inuses with a tendency to suffer this disease. Reported that respiratory distress is one of the most common sign we meet , more subtle symptoms such as weakness, anorexia, weight loss and exercise intolerance are common. In some cases, coughing is the only symptom. The causes of chylothorax need to be investigated in the following aspects: CBC, blood biochemistry, urinalysis, cytology of pleural effusion, thorax X-ray to evaluate mediastinal mass or chest mass, heartworm detection, echocardiography, etc. .The most common cause of disease is rupture of the thoracic duct. Other causes include: Trauma, tumor, heartworm, and long-term placement of an indwelling needle in the jugular vein may also cause chylothorax. In cats, diaphragmatic hernia and cardiomyopathy may also cause chylothorax, and lobular torsion has also been reported in dogs. In general, fluid leakage from a ruptured thoracic duct into the pleural cavity occurs at a rate of approximately per kilogram per hour (about 960ml per day for a 20kg dog). This means that within 2-3 days of the trauma, the dog may already be experiencing shortness of breath and difficulty breathing. Medical treatment includes low-fat prescription food, rutin, some doctors also suggest octreotide, etc., regular review, if the pleural effusion occurs again need to be punctured again. Indicators to evaluate the effectiveness of medical therapy, such as decreased frequency of puncture. Surgical treatment included thoracic duct ligation and partial pericardiectomy. Due to the high equipment and technical requirements of surgical treatment, surgical treatment may be considered when medical treatment is not effective.
Key words: Canine,Chylothorse ,diagnosis

Basic information

Name: CHAI CHAI
Breed: Shiba Inu
Sex: Female (castrated)
Age:3 years old
Body weight:6.9 kg
History: Complete vaccination and deworming, coughing when she was young.
The owner feeds her at home, with no contact with other animals or humans. Two weeks ago, the dog was found to start to appear short of breath, losing appetite, and weak. The owner found it in a low spirit than usual. So decided to take her to the hospital. Vaccinate history is completed, and deworming is this year.

Physical examination

Body weight 6.9 kg, temperature 39.6℃, respiratory rate was 120/min、, heart rate:120 beats/min. Heavy and unclear murmurs in breathing. Mouth mucosa was pink, capillary refill time(CRT)=2s、body condition score(BCS)was 4/9, which can touch the ribs in palpation. The patient was presented with a highly depressing situation. Dry coat and nose. Abdominal palpation was found nothing obvious abnormal. There were mild dental calculus and gingivitis in an oral examination. The surface hair of the skin was the day. The dehydration was evaluated at 5%. In palpation, the rate of the femoral artery was equal to the heart rate.

Laboratory examination
Complete Blood Count (CBC) examination

Project

Result

Reference Range

WBC

13.2×103/uL

6.0~17.0

RBC

7.97×106/uL

5.5~10

HGB

15.8g/dL

12.0~18.0

HCT

50.4%

37~55

MCV

63.2fL

60~77

MCH

19.8pg

19~24.5

MCHC

31.3g/dL

30~37

PLT

277×103/uL

200~500

LYM%

3.9%

12~30

OTHR%

94.7%

60~86

EO%

1.4%

2~10

LYM#

0.5×103/uL

 

OTHR#

12.5×103/uL

 

EO#

0.2×103/uL

 

Interpretation:There was a mild increased in the OTHER%. Red blood cell count and HCT indicate a possibility of dehydration that may have a low liquid volume,combined with the performance of the patient,but they were still in the reference range.

Idexx Catalyst biochemistry CHEM17

Project

Result

Reference Range

ALB

3.0g/dL

2.3-4.0

ALT

238U/L

10-100

ALKP

47U/L

23-212

AMYL

543U/L

500-1500

BUN/CREA

12

 

UREA

8.1mg/dL

7-27

CREA

170mg/dL

0.5-1.8

GGT

0U/L

0-7

LIPA

553U/L

200-1800

PHOS

0.94mg/dL

2.5-6.8

TP

60g/dL

5.2-8.2

TBIL

<2mg/dL

0-15

GLOB

3.0g/dL

2.5-4.5

ALB/GLOB

1.0

 

GLU

5.85mg/dL

74-143

CHOL

2.43mmol/L

2.84-8.26

CA

2.30mmol/L

1.98-3

Interpretation:There was a obvious increase in ALT,CREA which is a cue for the cell injury and dehydration.No obvious abnormalities in other biochemical indicators.
The result of the CRP testing

Project

Result

Reference Range

CRP

5 mg/L

<10mg/L

Interpretation:The result of CRP was normal.

The PCR result of infectious examination

Project

Result

Heartworm antigen

(-)

The radiography of X-ray examination of thoracic
The diagnosis and treatment of Canine Chylothorse

Picture 1.Markedly radiopaque markings were found in the thorax of patient.(VD radiograph)
The diagnosis and treatment of Canine Chylothorse

Picture 2. Markedly radiopaque markings were also found in the thorax of patient. -Right lateral radiograph

Diagnosis

Chylothorax
The diagnosis methods for Canine chylothorax usually used in veterinary clinics consist of the physical examination findings or history, laboratory examination such as complete blood count, serum biochemistries profile, fluid analysis(pleural), heartworm antigen test on serum, acid-base analysis, cytology, biopsy, histopathology, radiography, ultrasonography and even using advanced imaging.
Some clinical signs are common, such as tachypnea, coughing, dyspnea, and exercise intolerance. On the other hand, nonspecific signs like appetite decrease and weight loss have also been reported. More abnormalities might be present depending on the underlying cause. In this case, we take complete blood counts, common in anemia, leukopenia, lymphopenia, and neutrophilia. But we only find a possibility of neutrophilia. In serum biochemistry, the common result of hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, and hypoproteinemia were not found. Then the impact of the heartworm antigen test on serum was negative. Luckily, the performance of not visualized cardiac silhouette and the pleural effusion in the X-ray was typical. According to the result of the radiography, history, and the breed of Shiba Inu, we had highly suspected that the dog was suffering from chylothorax. Since there is a lack of examination, in this case, the other cause may not be excluded.

Treatment

(1)Thoracentesis: Intermittent thoracentesis may be performed as often as necessary to relieve respiratory signs. Because many dogs have an incomplete mediastinum, bilateral drainage may not always be necessary. Repeat thoracotomy with an increased risk of introducing infection and/or developing other complications. If frequent repetition of thoracotomy is required, other treatment options should be considered. Complications (e.g., restrictive pleurisy, pneumothorax) may occur if a thoracotomy does not relieve respiratory distress.
(2)Diet modification: In the past, a low-fat diet combined with medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil has been recommended. It is thought that by reducing dietary fat, the chylous volume will be reduced. It has also been suggested that it bypasses TD and is absorbed directly into the venous circulation. Both theories have been proven wrong in dogs. However, feeding a low-fat diet may still reduce the lipid content of chylous, which may make it more susceptible to pleural reabsorption. Because deficiencies in protein and fat-soluble vitamins may occur in patients with chylothorax, it is important to develop a balanced, appropriate nutritional plan to address these deficiencies
(3)Nutrition: Rutin, a benzopyranone, is commonly used as an admissible nutritional supplement in dogs and cats with idiopathic chylothorax or lymphedema. Although the exact mechanism of action is unknown, it may stimulate macrophage activity and promote the breakdown of proteins in lymph fluid, thereby improving reabsorption. Although objective clinical data on its efficacy are lacking, there are no contraindications for its use as adjunctive therapy. It appears to be well tolerated. Rutin is administered at 50 mg/kg PO q for 8 hours.
(4)Supportive therapy: Therapy with supplemental oxygen and intravenous fluids to correct dehydration and electrolyte imbalances once a day.
TIPS:
Medication: Currently, there is no clinical data to support the use of diuretics or corticosteroids for the treatment of idiopathic chylothorax, and their use is not recommended. Octreotide is a somatostatin analog that has been used in a small number of dogs with mixed results. It is thought to reduce the flow of chylous through TD and thus reduce the amount of pleural effusion. However, further research is needed before this treatment can be recommended.

The diagnosis and treatment of Canine Chylothorse
The diagnosis and treatment of Canine Chylothorse
The diagnosis and treatment of Canine Chylothorse

The symptoms of breath has been relief after 7 days of therapy

Conclusion

Definition and signalment
Most cases of chylothorax in dogs are idiopathic, as well as this case. Chylothorax can also occur secondary to TD trauma, right-sided heart disease, heartworm disease, lung lobe torsion, neoplasia, thromboembolism, congenital abnormalities, diaphragmatic hernia, and lymphangiectasia. Several breeds are predisposed to idiopathic chylothorax, including the Afghan hound, mastiff, Shetland sheepdog, and Shiba Inu. While no consistent age or sex predisposition has been found, Shiba Inus tend to be affected at a younger age. In one study of 19 male and eight female dogs, the reported mean age was 3.8 years. In a second study median age was 4.3 years, and in a third study mean age was 4.6 years (range 3-7 years). No sex predisposition has been noted.
Monitoring and Complications
Monitoring varies depending on the underlying cause. Repeat thoracic imaging is often performed to monitor the recurrence of pleural effusion. Complications after treatment of chylothorax include recurrent chylothorax, non-chylothorax effusion, chylothorax, or restrictive pleurisy. Pleural effusion recurrence is usually after surgical management, and the time to resolve pleural effusion is variable. In one report, the resolution of pleural effusion ranged from 1 to 50 days after surgery. In another study, three out of 35 dogs that survived the perioperative period relapsed at 12, 12, and 19 months. The new fluid may be chylous or non-chylous in nature. Chylous fluid often occurs due to the absence of TD branches or the presence of new branches. The above surgical methods can be used to treat recurrent or unresolved chylous fluid. Most non-chylous cases are thought to be secondary to inflammatory pleurisy or abnormal lymph. In one study, 33% of diseased dogs developed non-chylous fluid. Several approaches have been described for the management of chronic, non-chylous pleural effusion as follows:
1) Subcutaneous pleural opening: Traditionally, the stormy pleural tube is left in place to monitor immediate postoperative pleural effusion. However, a permanent subcutaneous pleural opening can be placed for long-term, intermittent pleural drainage. These ports are well tolerated, and the fluid can be easily drained using a special Huber dot needle, allowing repeated inspiration without damaging the port.
2) Active pleural shunt: The shunt device consists of an inflow tube and is placed in the chest; A pump cavity is placed in the subcutaneous tissue above a rib; There is also an outflow tube inserted into the abdomen. By manually compressing the pump chamber, 1mL of pleural fluid is directed from the chest to the abdomen. Most users can learn how to determine when and how to use the device effectively. For some animals, pump compression may be required multiple times per day. Most dogs tolerate this diversion well. Denver ShuntTM has been used in most patients. Although effective, short – and long-term complications (e.g., pump blockage, infection) have been reported.
3) Corticosteroids: In one study, postoperative non-chylous effusion was treated with anti-inflammatory doses of prednisone for 4-6 weeks. Three out of five (60%) dogs had fluid resolved.
Restrictive pleuritis
The development of restrictive pleurisy has often been reported but is not well understood. Inflammation of chylous, repeated thoracotomy and chronic disease may be precursors. Restrictive pleurisy is a thick fibrous membrane or granulation tissue that forms within the adjacent or visceral pleura. Inflammatory infiltration and adhesion formation are also common. This capsule limits the expansion of the lungs and can cause breathing disturbances even with proper pleural drainage. Fibrotic substances can also cause the lung parenchyma to contract. The presence of restrictive pleura may be an indicator of poor prognosis. However, there are limited reports on the incidence and treatment of restrictive canine pleurisy. The severity of pleurisy and the degree of associated pulmonary insufficiency may be more important than the mere presence or absence of restrictive pleurisy. Timely treatment of chylothorax is the best way to prevent restrictive pleurisy. Surgical stripping of fibrous membranes has had a limited success rate, and serious complications (e.g., bleeding, parenchymal injury, pneumothorax) have been reported. These complications are associated with chronic close adhesion of the pleura to the lung. In early or mild cases, it is possible to successfully remove the skin.
Prognosis
The prognosis varies depending on the underlying cause. TDL has been reported to have a 53-60% success rate in dogs. One study reported clinical improvement in 91.7% of cases when routine clipping and overall ligation were performed during video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. The second study reported the resolution of pleural effusion in 35/37 dogs that underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic TDL and pericardiectomy. The third study described clinical improvements in 11 out of 12 dogs. The success rate for CCA and TDL combined therapy dogs is 83-88%. However, despite appropriate treatment, some patients develop chronic chylothorax and constrictive pleurisy.

10 Best Dog Carriers in 2022 For Your Trip

As a dog parent, we want to take our furred friend in all places. Unfortunately, not all places are pet-friendly. That’s where dog carriers come in! A dog carrier for the car is a great way to bring your pup with you on all your adventures, whether you’re going on a hike, a bike ride, or even just running errands around town.

The dog carrier for the plane will help make traveling with your furry friend more manageable and more comfortable for both of you. Various options are available on the market, from traditional carrier bags to dog backpack carriers and even pet strollers.

But with so many different dog carriers on the market, it can take time to know which one is right for you and your pup. That’s why we’ve put together a list of the ten best dog carriers of 2022 to help you find the perfect one for your needs.

We’ve covered you, from small dog carriers to large dog carriers. So, we’ve got you covered whether you’re looking for a small dog-carrying bag for your Yorkie or a dog airline carrier for your Great Dane. From stylish designer carriers to functional backpack carriers, there’s something for everyone on this list. So, if you’re looking for the perfect dog carrier for your next adventure, read on!

Top 10 Best Dog Pet Carriers 

LOOBANI Expandable Pet Carrier Airline Approved
  • Airline & TSA Approved Pet Carrier

  • Support small cats and dogs up to 14 LBS

  • Removable Rolling Wheels for Easy Storage

  • 360 Degree Flexible and Smooth Wheels

  • 4 Side Breathable Mesh Screen

  • 2 Side Expandable Mesh for More Space

  • Used for airline, travel, outdoor camping, etc.

The LOOBANI Expandable Pet Carrier is the best dog carrier for air travel. The bag is made with high-quality materials that will last a long time. It has four sides breathable mesh screens to protect your pet during travel. The net sections deliver plenty of aeration and perceptibility.

The most important thing that you will notice about this dog carrier bag is its size. This dog carrier can hold dogs up to 14 pounds, making it perfect for most small dogs. Its size also makes it easy to carry around, so you won’t have to worry about having trouble fitting your pet into it. The bag has a large front storage pocket that can hold your laptop, tablets, etc. The bag has a detachable shoulder strap so you can easily carry it in your arms or hands.

The LOOBANI Expandable Pet Carrier has two side expandable mesh cages, making it great for transporting multiple animals simultaneously. The LOOBANI Dog Carrier with Wheels is also very easy to clean because each mesh screen comes off easily, so you can use a vacuum or brush to clean it after each use without any problems.

According to the manufacturer, this best dog carrier has been tested and approved by the TSA for airline travel. Thus, you no longer have to worry about carrying your pet through airport security checkpoints! The wheels of this bag make it easy to travel without lifting extra luggage.

Features

  • Durable fabric exterior with an easy clean lining 
  • Fold-down sides make it easy to carry multiple cats
  • 360 Degree Flexible and Smooth Wheels
  • Includes handle & shoulder straps for extra support when carrying heavy loads
  • The Interior contains several pockets for storage of pet’s necessities

Pros

  • Affordable
  • Durable
  • Adjustable
  • Wheels for transportation

Cons

  • Mesh can damage by teething 
Sherpa 2-in-1 Backpack Travel Pet Carrier
  • This is airline-approved and is perfect for traveling in style and comfort by plane or car, for an adventure or just a trip to the vet.

  • PATENTED spring wire frame allows the rear end of the carrier to be pushed down several inches.

  • FEATURES mesh windows for ventilation, top and double sided entry with locking zippers for safety, a padded, adjustable, no-slip carrying strap and two pockets for convenient storage of treats, leash and poop bags.

  • EASY to use, comfortable and machine washable for easy cleaning. 

Sherpa’s patented design is soft, durable polyester resistant to UV rays. The backpack has multiple pockets to keep your belongings organized and easy to find. A mesh pocket is located on the front panel to access your phone or tablet easily. The dog backpack carrier also features a detachable shoulder strap for carrying the bag as a backpack or handbag. The Sherpa travel carrier has an expanded back section for more comfort and maintenance.

The Sherpa pet carriers are a great way to transport your pet on trips or in the car. The backpacks come in various sizes and styles to fit your needs. They also make excellent cat carriers because they are lightweight and easy to carry. These products are made from water-resistant materials, so you can use them in any weather.

The backpack-style carrier works well as a dog carrier because it is lightweight and comfortable enough for your dog to sit or lay while traveling. The carrying handle makes it easy for you to move it around when needed. The sides of the bag are also padded for added comfort for your pet.

If you want something more portable than a backpack, consider getting one of these hand-free sling-style carriers instead. These carriers have shoulder straps, so they can easily be carried alone without taking your pet inside with you!

Sherpa dog carrier is made with durable fabrics that are easy to clean and machine washable. They feature padded shoulder straps for comfort and a padded back panel for support during long trips. These carriers also have separate compartments for food and water bowls so your pet can stay hydrated away from home.

Pros

  • Easy to use
  • Custom wear

Cons

  • Costly
Cinf Backpack Adjustable Pet Front Cat Dog Carrier Bag Easy-Fit Traveling Hiking Camping Puppies Outdoor Use Blue
  • INTERNAL SIZE-28x22x26cm,maximum capacity 5.5Ibs. Please purchase according to the body size and weight of your pet.

  • DURABLE AND COMFORTABLE-Made from breathable mesh and polyester fibre. Two mesh side panels allow maximum air circulation.

  • HOOK AND LOOP, ZIPPER DESIGN-Allow you to fit your dog or cat inside comfortably.

  • ADJUSTABLE SHOULDER STRAP-For easy reduce pressure on your shoulders and keep your dog or cat close to your heart.

  • ADEQUATE SECURITY-It is no Pressure to Hold Your “Baby “Whether You walking, outing, weekend adventure, travelling.

Cinf Pet Backpack is the perfect solution for carrying your cat or dog. It has a front and two side pockets, with zipper closures. The bag can also be used as a backpack when hiking, camping or traveling.

The dog carrier for a small dog is made from durable material that is water resistant, so it will not get wet inside. It also has an adjustable strap with padding to wear comfortably on your back. The front pocket is large enough to store treats for your pet and other items, such as papers or receipts, for easy access.

The best backpack dog carrier for your small dog. Designed with comfort in mind, this backpack is the perfect companion for your little friend on the go. It features a padded hip belt with a sternum strap and two adjustable shoulder straps for a snug fit that stays stable during travel. Its spacious main compartment offers plenty of room for everything you need, including food, toys and treats. 

The front panel of the small dog carrier bag is fully adjustable so that you can adjust it to fit perfectly on your pet’s back. The zippered panel on the top offers easy access to essentials like treats or toys while allowing you to carry out dog treats. This lightweight bag also has a rear pocket perfect for storing your keys or cell phone when you aren’t using it as a backpack!

This bag dog carrier has an adjustable strap to fit different body shapes and sizes so that you can wear it as efficiently as possible and is suitable for all kinds of activities like travelling, hiking, camping etc. The backpack has two side pockets for water bottles or snacks and one zipper pocket for small things like money etc., which is convenient for you when you go on a trip or hiking.

Pros

  • Lightweight
  • Stylish
  • Durable

Cons

  • Ideal for small dogs
Pet Carrier: Hard-Sided Dog Carrier, Cat Carrier, Small Animal Carrier in Blue, Inside Dims 17.91 L x 11.5 W x 12 H & Suitable for Tiny Dog Breeds, Perfect Dog Kennel Travel Carrier for Quick Trips
  • Hard Sided Dog Carrier

  • Pet carrier is available in 3 fun & fashionable colors & the design provides proper air circulation 

  • Dog carrier made of durable, easy-to-clean plastic & includes built in carrying handle.

  • Quality pet carrier

The Midwest Homes for Pets Pet Carrier is a Louis vuitton dog carrier, cat carrier, and small pet carrier. It’s suitable for most miniature breeds, such as Chihuahuas and Maltese. The Midwest Homes for Pets Dog Carrier has a tough exterior made of heavy-duty polyester fabric with a water-resistant coating. An adjustable divider inside can be used to divide the space into two separate compartments.

The carrier dog is designed so that it doesn’t have a zipper or other openings on the sides, which can be problematic if you’re trying to carry your pet in the car or an airplane seat next to you.

The Midwest Homes for Pets Cat Carrier features mesh panels at all sides so your cat can see out and feel comfortable while traveling with you. Going somewhere outside where other animals or insects might be is essential! The cat carrier also has multiple pockets where you can store treats and toys for your cat while traveling with you.

The carrier also comes with a small carrying case, making it easy to store and keep organized. The carrier’s interior is soft plastic so your pet can rest comfortably. The Midwest Homes for Pets Dog Carrier is easy to clean, use, and comfortable for your pet. It has multiple ventilation holes that allow air circulation inside the carrier and helps keep your pet dry during travel.

Pros

  • Very cheap
  • Easy to carry

Cons

  • For small dogs only
Sherpa Original Deluxe Pet Carrier
  • Approved for use on major airlines

  • Carrier includes mesh panels for ventilation, top and side entry, a convenient shoulder strop

  • Available in black color; small size for pets up to 8-pounds

  • Removable faux lambskin liner washable, bag can be spot cleaned with soap and water

  • Measures 15 inches long, 8.5 inches high, and 10 inches wide

The Original Deluxe Travel Bag is a safe, secure and comfortable way to transport your pet on an airplane. This innovative airline dog carrier features a machine-washable liner and padded cradles for extra comfort. A high-quality zipper closure prevents your pet from escaping during travel. 

This dog travel carrier is a great way to bring your pet along on your travels. With its multiple size options, you can choose the best one for your needs. It’s made from soft yet durable polyester that helps keep your pet comfortable during long trips, and it features a machine-washable liner so you can keep it clean after every use.

The large dog carrier is also airline approved and has multiple colors to choose from so that you can match it with your other luggage or accessories.

The Original Deluxe Travel Bag has a convenient handle that makes it easy to carry or hand-carry your pet to the airport, train station or rental car center. This sturdy carrier folds flat for storage when not in use, so you can pack it up without taking up too much space in your luggage or carry-on bag.

Pros

  • Wide sections
  • Airline approved

Cons

  • Without safety leash
Petsfit Expandable Cat Carrier Dog Carriers
  • EXPANDABLE SOFT-SIDE CARRIER

  • COMFORTABLE SPACE

  • DURABLE MATERIAL

  • MULTIPLE WAYS TO CARRY 

  • AIRLINE APPROVED CARRIER 

Petfit Expandable backpack to carry a dog is the ideal solution for your traveling needs. The Petfit Expandable Cat Carrier is a soft-sided carrier made of durable fabric that can be folded up and stored in a bag or suitcase when not in use.

This dog chest carrier has an expandable design that makes it easy to carry up to three cats at once. This carrier comes with a handle for easy carrying and shoulder straps for added support when carrying heavy loads. The interior contains several pockets to store your pet’s necessities, such as food and water bowls, toys, and blankets.

The Petfit Expandable chest carrier for dogs is a soft-sided carrier that can transport cats and dogs. It has a washable, removable liner and is airline-approved for pets up to 10lb. The carrier is collapsible, so you can pack it away when not in use. It also features zip ties and straps to keep your pet secure. This carrier is great for traveling by plane, train or car.

The Petfit Expandable Carrier is made from durable nylon and has a fabric liner that you can remove for easy cleaning. The interior padding provides comfort for your pet and protects them from bumps and scrapes while in transit. 

Pros

  • Shoulder straps for custom sling
  • Easy to clean

Cons

  • Not suitable for larger dog breeds
Petmate Vari Dog Kennel, Portable Dog Crate for Large Dogs, Great for Puppies Indoor or Outdoor, Perfect Travel Dog Crate
  • TRAVEL KENNEL

  • AIRLINE-ADAPTABLE

  • KENNELS HOUSES

  • Petmate

  • JUST FOR PETS

  • SIMPLE, SECURE ACCESS

Petmate Vari Dog Kennel is a portable kennel that allows your dog to be safely secured and travel with you. It is an ideal travel companion for dogs and cats alike, especially if you are a pet owner with frequent business trips or extended vacations.

This dog car carrier comes in different sizes, ranging from 10 to 15 inches and 20 inches. The main benefit of this crate is that it can fit into most car trunks or backseats, making it easy for you to take with you wherever you go. Another great feature is that this kennel has wheels, so you can quickly move it around your house or office without having to worry about any damage being done to the furniture or rugs where it might fall onto them from time to time.

The Petmate Vari Kennel is a very versatile dog kennel that can be used in multiple situations. It’s easy to clean and comes in various sizes to fit your dog’s needs. The Vari Kennel has a large door that provides easy access for the dog and keeps them safe from predators. If you’re looking for a secure kennel for your pet, this is the one for you!

Pros

  • Easy to assemble
  • Existing in 6 sizes
  • Easy to clean

Cons

  • Lack of additional storage part
YUDODO Reflective Pet Dog Sling Carrier Breathable Mesh Travel Safe Sling Bag Carrier for Dogs Cats (S up to 5lbs Black)
  • Please measure your pet’s weight and size before purchasing. Please refer to our second picture (MEASUREMENT METHOD & SIZE CHART).
    Adjuatable strap measures 38.6-46.5 inchs long. fits small to large sized person.

  • Made of leather and mesh, soft, breathable and durable

  • Super wide padded shoulder strap and studdy hook, easy to adjust, safe and comfortable for your little pet to stay

  • Hands-free design, compact storage, suitable for for small pets, such as Cats,Minlature Pinscher, Chihuahua, Yorkshire Terrier, Pomeranian, Mini poodle, Miniature Schnauzer, Teddy cups, ect.

YUDODO Pet Dog Sling Carrier Breathable Mesh Travel Safe Bag Sling Carrier for Dogs Cats is a great option to carry your pet around. The main feature of this pet carrier is the breathable mesh, making it comfortable to carry your pet.

This dog carrier has a handle and a chest strap that can be adjusted according to your needs. You can use a designer dog carrier as a backpack while walking your dog and as an item to carry your pet in style and comfort.

YUDODO Pet Dog Carrier Bag is made of breathable mesh material, which is excellent for the dog’s health and comfort. The carrier can be used as a travel bag or pet carrier.

The Yudodog dog bag carrier comes with a safety zipper lock system. It can be used as a travel bag or pet carrier. The quality of the material is excellent and durable. The shoulder strap is very comfortable because it has padding on the inside and outside, making it easy for you to put it on and take it off without hurting yourself or causing any discomfort for your pet.

Pros

  • Dog carrier sling leaves arm and hands-free
  • Super comfortable

Cons

  • Weighty for shoulders
PetAmi Airline Approved Dog Purse Carrier | Soft-Sided Pet Carrier for Small Dog, Cat, Puppy, Kitten | Portable Stylish Pet Travel Handbag | Ventilated Breathable Mesh, Sherpa Bed (Pink)
  • Fits most small/medium sized cats, small dogs, rabbits and other small pets up to 12lbs. 

  • Entire top opens for convenient entry and zipped cover flap for privacy

  • DESIGNED WITH SAFETY IN MIND Equipped with safety hook and safety zipper buckles to secure your pet and prevent escape. 

  • COMFORTABLE, CONVENIENT, EASY TO USE 

  • DURABLE CONSTRUCTION 

PetAmi Airline Approved dog carrier purse is an affordable and convenient way to take your pet with you in the cabin of an airplane. This pet travel bag features an adjustable shoulder strap and a convenient front pocket for storing your pet’s leash or toys. This soft-sided carrier features breathable mesh fabric that allows air to circulate through the bag to keep your pet comfortable on their trip. 

This dog carrier bag is a soft-sided carrier that comes in various colors to suit your style. It has a removable Sherpa pad for added comfort and style and two zippered compartments for easy travel. This compact dog purse carrier also includes a handle for easy carrying and a padded handle for added comfort and support. The Sherpa bed is removable and washable, so you can clean it from time to time if necessary.

The PetAmi Airline Approved dog carry purse is a stylish and practical small pet travel carrier that can carry your furry friend while traveling by plane. This purse for having a dog is excellent for transporting small dogs like Yorkies and Chihuahuas on shorter trips or even taking them with you around town when they don’t want to ride in the car any longer than necessary!

Pros

  • Zipper locks
  • Charming Design 
  • Airline approved

Cons

  • The dog may chew mesh window

K&H PET PRODUCTS Travel Bike Backpack for Pets Gray 9.5 X 14 X 15.75 Inches
  • STRONG

  • ALL INCLUSIVE

  • QUICK RELEASE

  • STORAGE

  • BREEZY VIEWS

K&H PET PRODUCT’s dog bike carrier is a must-have for any pet owner to bring their pets anywhere they go. It is made from durable polyester and polyurethane materials that keeps your pet comfortable while traveling on them.

This dog carrier for the bike has multiple compartments that can accommodate all the essential items that a pet owner may need to carry along with them during travel, such as food, water, toys and other stuff like bedding and blankets for their dogs or cats. Carrier for a dog on a motorcycle comes with an adjustable padded strap that makes it even more comfortable to carry a dog on a bike.

The K&H PET PRODUCTS motorcycle dog carrier is the perfect travel backpack for pets. The dog carrier for a motorcycle has two main compartments, one on both sides, and an adjustable shoulder strap to help keep your pet comfortable and secure during their travels. 

The top section of the bike dog carrier is fully lined with a waterproof material in gray that keeps water from seeping inside. The front pocket features a mesh pocket for storing small items such as treats or toys, while the rear pocket of dog carrying bike has a clear window that allows you to see what’s inside without having to open the entire bag up.

Pros

  • Attach to bike
  • More convenient

Cons

  • Less secure storage space 

Top 10 Best Dog Pet Carriers 

The Ownpets Harness and Sling Bag is a perfect dog-carrying bag to use when taking your dog for a walk. It has many different features that make it very helpful and convenient. The harness part of the product can be used to hold on to your dog’s leash or belt, while the strap on the back is great for holding on to when you are walking your dog. If you have an older dog needing extra support, this product will help them get around much more accessible and with less strain on their joints and muscles.

What do We look for In Dog Carriers? 

When looking for a dog carrier, comfort and safety should be top of mind. It’s essential to make sure your pup is secure and comfortable when traveling. Look for carriers made from breathable materials like mesh or nylon to keep your pooch calm and provide plenty of ventilation. Make sure the carrier has secure straps and buckles for easy transport and is well-padded for your pup’s comfort. Double-check the size and weight limit of the carrier you choose to ensure it is suitable for your puppy.
When shopping for a dog front carrier, it’s essential to consider the purpose for which you’ll be using it. Will it be for everyday use, for trips to the vet, or air travel? For example, if you plan to take your pup on trips, you’ll want a lightweight and easy transport carrier. If you plan to fly with your puppy, you’ll want a carrier that meets airline regulations and is comfortable for your dog. 
Additionally, size is an essential factor to consider. Make sure the carrier is big enough for your pup to move around and stretch out but not so big that they can easily escape. You’ll also want to consider the style of the carrier. Do you want a traditional carrier, a dog-carrying backpack style, or something else? Lastly, you’ll want to consider the price. Ensure to get the best value pet carrier for your budget.

Loobani Pet Carriers

Tips for Buying a Dog Carrier

When choosing the dog carrier, it’s important to consider the mode of transportation you’ll be using. If you plan to fly with your doggo check the airline’s and FAA’s requirements for pet carriers. 
Most airlines require that all pet carriers fit under the seat in front of you, so you’ll need to measure the carrier’s dimensions to make sure it meets the airline’s requirements. Additionally, some airlines have specific requirements for pet carriers, such as having a waterproof bottom and a secure latch. 
Read up on the airline’s specific requirements before purchasing a pet carrier. It’s also important to consider features that are specific to your pet. If your pet is particularly large, get a large carrier for them to turn around comfortably. If your pet is tiny, make sure to get a small carrier for them to feel safe and secure.

FAQs

How long do dogs carry puppies?
Dogs typically carry their puppies for approximately 63 days or nine weeks. During this period, the puppies will be developing in their mother’s womb and utterly dependent on her for nourishment. After they are born, puppies will bond with their moms and stay with them until they are weaned and ready to start exploring the world independently. It’s a lovely time for moms and puppies, and it is great to witness the bond that forms between them!
Do dog ticks carry Lyme disease?
Yes, dog ticks can carry Lyme disease. The causative agent of Lyme disease is Borrelia burgdorferi. It can infect both human being and canines. The disease is transmitted by biting a tick infected with the bacteria. This severe disease can cause various symptoms, including fever, joint pain, and fatigue. You can treat this with anti-inflammatory and antibiotics medicines.
Can dogs carry bed bugs?
No, dogs cannot carry bed bugs. Bed bugs are not like fleas that are present on the dog’s body and spread to the environment. But bed bugs can be found near or under beds.
Can I carry my dog after being neutered?
While you can carry your dog after they have been neutered, it is best to avoid it. Putting pressure on the incision side can cause discomfort and may delay healing.

Conclusion 

After reading this guide, you should now understand the different types of dog carriers available on the market and what features to look for when choosing the best one for your needs. Each carrier has been rated based on its features, size, weight, price, and durability. Always measure your dog and check the weight and size limits of the carrier before making your final purchase. We hope you found this guide helpful and that you and your furry friend have a safe and enjoyable trip!

Diagnosis and Treatment of Canine Distemper

Abstract

Canine distemper is a highly contagious infectious disease that threatens dogs the most. The causative agent of canine distemper is Paramyxoviridae and Morbillivirus. At present, there is only one serotype, which can infect a variety of cells and tissues. However, lymphocytes and epithelial cells have the strongest affinity, which seriously damages the body’s cellular immunity and humoral immunity. Susceptible animals are mainly a variety of canidae, mustelidae and raccoon animals, which are mainly infected through the respiratory tract, followed by the digestive tract, regardless of age, sex or breed. But,within one year of age,especially unimmunized puppies aged 2-6 months are most susceptible after the disappearance of maternal antibodies,often forming litters, and the mortality rate of infected puppies is as high as 90%. At the beginning of the infectious disease, there will be biphasic body temperature rise, serous or purulent secretions from the eyes and nose, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal infection symptoms, and neurological symptoms such as muscle twitching or paralysis in the middle and late stages.

In this article, the clinical diagnosis and treatment of canine distemper cases are sorted out as follows:

1: Case information

1.Name: Dodo
2.Varieties: Skewers
3.Years old: 3 months
4.Gender: Female
5.Visit time: August 2021

2: Medical history investigation

1.Visiting questions: cough, fever, runny nose, dandruff on the body
2.Main statement: One week after purchasing the dog, the dog has not been vaccinated or dewormed. On the day of bringing the dog home, the owner found dander on the dog and gave it a bath. Afterwards, the dog had a runny nose and sneezing, thinking it was a cold. The owner gave the dog cephalosporins for humans, but it did not improve. The dog’s symptoms further developed into cough, sputum, and purulent nasal discharge. Today, the skin was palpated with fever, lack of energy and appetite, and then the owner brought the dog to see the doctor.

3: Physical examination

1. Overall inspection
BCS: 4/9, good body condition, rough fur, dander, normal bone development, mild dehydration.
2. General inspection
BW: 3.5KG T: 41℃ HR: 140/MIN RR: 40/MIN
3. System check
Auscultatory arrhythmia, pulmonary crackles, and induced cough were positive
4. Laboratory examination
Inspection items: canine distemper (CDV) antigen, small coronary double (CCPV) antigen, blood routine, acute reaction protein

Canine distemper antigen detection

Check Item

Check Results

CDVag

+++

Canine parvocoronary double antigen test

Check Item

Check Results

CPVag

CCVag

Blood routine

Check Item

Check Results

Reference Range

WBC

26.5×10^9/L

6-16.9

LYM#

5.3×10^9/L

1.1-6.3

GRA#

10.2×10^9/L

3.30-12.0

RBC

4.6×10^12/L

5.50-8.50

HGB

11.6g/dl

12.0-18.0

HCT

48%

37.0-55.0

MCHC

28 g/dl

30.0-36.9

PTL

389K/ul

175-550

Acute response protein

Check Item

Check Results

Reference Range

CRP

123mg/l

<20mg/l

The canine distemper antigen was strongly positive, and the blood routine and acute reaction protein indicated severe infection. The direction of diagnosis was canine distemper virus infection and pneumonia. Further imaging was recommended to confirm the condition of the lungs (not performed due to cost issues).

Diagnosis and Treatment of Canine Distemper

4: Diagnosis and treatment

Diagnosis: Canine distemper infection, pneumonia
treat:
1. Canine hyperimmune serum 3.5ML SC once a day for 5 consecutive days
2. Canine interferon 200U SC once a day for five consecutive days
3. Tilidine 0.35ML SC once a day (measure body temperature daily, no need to use if there is no fever)
4. Ceftriaxone 0.4ML +0.9%NACL100ml IV intravenous infusion at a rate of 15/H
5. Multivitamin B0.35ML+LRS 100ML IV intravenous infusion at a rate of 15/H
6. Energy group + 5%GS50ML IV intravenous infusion at a speed of 15/H
7. Ribavirin 0.35ML SC once a day for five consecutive days
8. Maxing Shigan Oral Liquid PO 2-4 times a day, 4ML each time
9. Doxycycline tablets PO once a day, 1/2 tablet each time
10. Nutritious and blood-enriching ointment, soothing and enhancing body resistance at the same time
11. Normal saline 20ML nebulized once a day

5: Matters needing attention

1. The mortality rate of canine distemper infectious disease is as high as 80% under the condition of best treatment, and the treatment cycle is long and the cost is relatively high. It is necessary to communicate well in advance to avoid disputes.
2. During the hospitalization period, separate isolation treatment is required, and the secretions from the mouth, nose and eyes of the dog should be cleaned up in time. Nursing staff need to do a good job of disinfection to avoid cross-infection in the hospital.
3. During the treatment period, body temperature, changes in eye and nose secretions, nose mirrors, foot pads, and neurological symptoms need to be checked daily, and medication needs to be adjusted according to these.
4. During the treatment, it is necessary to observe whether there are more symptoms than before admission, such as vomiting and diarrhea.
5. The owner does not recommend raising new dogs within half a year

6: Prognosis

Picture of discharge from nose and eyes

Picture of playing on the ground after being discharged from the hospital
Diagnosis and Treatment of Canine Distemper

After one week of medication, the pneumonia condition improved significantly, the mental appetite was normal, and there was no fever. The owner asked to be discharged from the hospital for observation. Eye secretions and coughing began to appear on the 3rd day after discharge home. On the 6th day, fever appeared again with neurological symptoms. We recommend that the owner bring the dog back to the clinic for follow-up consultation, and use nerve repair and regeneration drugs and symptomatic treatment. The owner gave up the treatment because the cure rate was too low and the cost was too high, the treatment cycle could not be determined, and the prognosis could not be known.

7: Disease pathogenesis and prevention

Canine distemper virus disease is the most harmful type of disease to dogs. The nasal fluid of sick dogs and infected dogs contains a large amount of viruses, and their tears, blood, urine, feces and exhaled gas also contain viruses. It is mainly transmitted through air and droplets, causing pollution of food, drinking water, supplies and surrounding air, etc., and is highly contagious. Canines are susceptible regardless of sex or age, but the mortality rate of young dogs is extremely high after infection. The incubation period of the disease is 3 to 14 days. The body temperature of most sick dogs rises to 39.8-41°C on the 4th or 5th day after infection, which lasts for 1-2 days, followed by a remission period of 2-3 days, and then rises again. It is a typical biphasic fever performance of canine distemper. With the rise of body temperature and the destruction of the immune system, the sick dog is depressed, loses appetite, moist eyes, tearing, coughing, continuous development will turn into mucus purulent secretions, and rough breath sounds on auscultation of the larynx, trachea and lungs. Then it develops into bronchial pneumonia or fibrinous pneumonia, dry nose, and hair loss around the eyes due to secretions from the eyes for a long time. A small number of dogs also have gastrointestinal symptoms, vomiting or blood in the stool, followed by dehydration. After 2 to 3 weeks of onset, most of the dogs will develop neurological symptoms, such as twitching of lips, eyelids, and ears, circling, rolling, paroxysmal twitching of limbs, or ataxia. When convulsions occur, it is highly suggested that the treatment is of little significance and the prognosis is poor. If you survive the treatment as soon as possible, you will be accompanied by sequelae of limb convulsions for life.
Prevention: At present, the most effective way to prevent this disease is to inject vaccines. The officially sold vaccines that can prevent canine distemper in the domestic market include VANGUARD® PLUS 5-CVL or Nobivac® Puppy DP. Puppies need to be vaccinated against infectious diseases three times for the first immunization, starting at the age of 2 months, and vaccinating once every 21 days. With the improvement of people’s living standards, the awareness of dog disease prevention has increased. Under the premise that prevention is better than cure, most owners can accept regular vaccination and good habits of deworming, which also greatly reduces the infection of infectious diseases and the opportunities for dissemination. Avoid contact with dogs that seem to have obvious respiratory symptoms when going out for a walk. During spring and autumn and other canine viral disease flu seasons, pay attention to temperature differences and enhance the dog’s body resistance, which can also reduce the chance of dog illness.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Canine Distemper

Diagnosis and treatment of canine lower urinary tract infection

Abstract

The canine urinary system is mainly composed of four parts: kidney, ureter, bladder and urethra. The kidneys and ureters make up the upper urinary tract, and the bladder and urethra make up the lower urinary tract. The most common infection in dogs is lower urinary tract infection, which is caused by secondary infection after injury due to stimulation of the lower urinary tract mucosa of dogs by mechanical or chemical pathogenic factors. Most lower urinary tract infections will be accompanied by cystitis. Infection usually refers to bacterial translocation to the sterile lower urinary tract. The initial symptoms of lower urinary tract infection are often not obvious, and then there will be frequent licking of the genitals, swelling of the urethra, frequent urination, Hematuria, urine dripping pyuria and other symptoms. Common bacteria are Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus and so on. Most lower urinary tract infections are caused by a single microorganism, but there are also mixed infections of multiple microorganisms, and the prognosis of a single infection is mostly good.

In this paper, the treatment cases of lower urinary tract infection in male dogs are sorted out as follows.

1: Case information

1. Name: Xiaobai
2. Breed: Labrador
3. Age: 2 years old
4. Gender: Male
5. Visit time: April 2022

2: Medical history investigation

1. Problems when visiting a doctor: Frequent licking of genitals, purulent discharge, red and swollen penis, do not allow people to touch, frequent urination, barking when urinating.
2. Main statement: After mating with the female dog for 5 days, I found frequent licking of the genitals, barking when urinating, the number of times increased significantly, the foreskin of the penis became red and swollen, and some purulent secretions were used for self-use. The vulva cleaning agent was used for personal use, and it was taken orally for human use. Amoxicillin did not improve, there is a circle of leaders at home, the mental state is not bad, the appetite is normal, the urination is abnormal, the defecation is normal, and the history of deworming vaccine is complete. I didn’t take a bath recently, and the female dog was more aggressive when mated 5 days ago. I suspected that the mating damage caused corresponding problems and came to see a doctor.

Diagnosis and treatment of canine lower urinary tract infection

3: Physical examination

1. Overall inspection
BCS: 5/9 Good condition, shiny coat, no skin lesions
2. General inspection
BW: 28KG T: 39.0℃ HR: 140/MIN RR: 30 times/MIN
3. System check
Auscultate regular heart rhythm, no heart murmur, palpate bladder pain, red and swollen penis, purulent discharge at urethral meatus, no dehydration
4. Laboratory examination
Inspection items: blood routine, acute reaction protein, urine routine, biochemistry, B-ultrasound

Blood Routine

Project

Test Result

Reference Range

WBC

42×10^9/L

6-16.9

LYM#

8.2×10^9/L

1.1-6.3

GRA#

18×10^9/L

3.30-12.00

RBC

6.8×10^12/L

5.50-8.50

HGB

14.3g/dl

12.0-18.0

HCT

52%

37.0-55.0

MCHC

32.0 g/dl

30.0-36.9

PLT

452K/ul

175-550

Acute Response Protein

Project

Test Result

Reference Range

CRP

86.5mg/l

<20mg/l

Urine Sediment Staining
Diagnosis and treatment of canine lower urinary tract infection

Biochemical

Project

Test Result

Reference Range

TP

65.8

54-82

ALB

22.6

25-44

GLO

38.2

23-52

A/G

0.7

 

TBIL

15.64

2-10.3

ALT

28

10-118

AST

37

8.9-48.5

GGT

0.5

0-7

BUN

8.0

2.5-8.9

CRE

118

27-124

GLU

6.38

3.9-7.9

B Ultrasound
Diagnosis and treatment of canine lower urinary tract infection

Routine blood leukocyte elevation and acute inflammatory response both indicate severe inflammation and infection. A large number of bacteria can be seen in urine sediment staining. Ultrasound examination shows thickened bladder wall and uneven mucosa. The direction of diagnosis is lower urinary tract infection.

4: Diagnosis and Treatment

1. Diagnosis: canine lower urinary tract infection
2. Treatment:
a. Antibiotic treatment: Baili 2.8ML/KG SC, Suo Nuo 1.4ML/KG SC once a day for 5 consecutive days
b. Pain management: butorphanol 2.8ML/KG SC once a day for five consecutive days
c. Chlorhexidine cleaning agent, wash the genitals once in the morning and evening, and use it continuously for 7 days
d. Elizabeth Circle

5: Precautions

1. Urinary system problems need to do a complete urinary tract system examination to avoid missed detection. Ultrasound examination of male dogs also needs to scan the prostate to see if there is any enlargement or cyst. The prostate will also cause corresponding symptoms to avoid misdiagnosis.
2. Urinalysis should be collected by cystocentesis as far as possible, and evaluated by aerobic culture and antibiotic sensitivity test.
3. The location of UTI should be accurately determined, although the locations may overlap, based on clinical history, signs, physical examination results, and laboratory and imaging results.
4. Wear the Elizabeth ring during the medication to avoid secondary infection of the external skin caused by licking.
5. Drink as much water (clean) as possible during the medication, so that the body can produce a large amount of urine and speed up urination.
6. Recheck blood routine, acute reaction protein, B-ultrasound, and urine test after one week.
7. Do not perform mating behavior in the short term.

6: Prognosis

Two days after the withdrawal of the drug, the owner was unwilling to re-examine the laboratory examination due to the cost of the examination. He only carried out the overall physical re-examination. The spirit and appetite were normal, and the urination returned to normal. The appearance of the penis foreskin has no redness and swelling. The prognosis is good. If you want to be sure, further laboratory tests are recommended.

Diagnosis and treatment of canine lower urinary tract infection

7: Disease pathogenesis and prevention

Urinary tract infections are very common in small animals. Almost all infections are caused by pathogenic bacteria, and some are caused by fungi or viruses, but they are relatively rare. Most bacterial lower urinary tract infections are caused by bacteria ascending to the external genitalia and urethra. Less commonly, bacteria spread through the blood and colonize the urinary tract. A number of innate preventive mechanisms help prevent lower urinary tract infections. Complete and regular urination, as well as the inherent properties of urine (hyperosmolarity, antimicrobial solutes), contribute to creating a microbiologically hostile urinary tract environment. Anatomical barriers and mucosal defenses further prevent virulent bacteria from adhering to the urothelium. However, when these defense mechanisms are insufficient, the pathogenic bacteria will increase the permeability of the urothelium, allow inflammatory solutes to enter the subepithelial membrane, and secrete inflammatory factors. The result is inflammation and pain, and the animals show dysuria, dripping urine and Blood in the urine. Lower urinary tract infection can be divided into urinary tract infection, bladder infection, and mixed infection is also possible. Those with mild symptoms do not need medication, and it is possible to heal themselves by drinking plenty of water and enhancing the body’s resistance. If symptoms develop from mild infection, timely intervention and treatment are required to avoid infection Upward development develops upper urinary tract mixed infection, and after kidney and ureter problems occur, treatment may be more troublesome at this time.
Good drinking and eating habits can greatly reduce the incidence of canine urinary tract diseases:
1. The host defense mechanism of the body can prevent the proliferation of urinary tract bacteria, so do not use antibiotics for long-term prevention.
2. Advocate eating wet food or other ways to promote drinking water, most of the urinary system diseases can be alleviated by increasing drinking water.
3. Keep the dog’s sanitation and environment clean and dry.
4. Walk the dog in the morning and evening, or train the dog to use the dog toilet to prevent the dog from holding back urine for a long time.
5. When mating during estrus, pay attention to the cleanliness of the genitals to avoid cross-infection.
6. For mating, try to find a docile partner for mating to avoid secondary infection caused by mechanical damage.
7. Dogs with a history of urinary diseases need to regularly consume the prescribed amount of urinary tract according to the doctor’s doctor’s order, and the consumption period is determined according to the follow-up visit.
8. Take nutrition and health supplements that protect the bladder mucosa and reduce the colonization of pathogenic bacteria.
9. In view of the nature of stones, reasonably reduce the intake of protein, calcium, magnesium, and oxalate.
10. Regular physical examination, early detection and early treatment.