The canine urinary system is mainly composed of four parts: kidney, ureter, bladder and urethra. The kidneys and ureters make up the upper urinary tract, and the bladder and urethra make up the lower urinary tract. The most common infection in dogs is lower urinary tract infection, which is caused by secondary infection after injury due to stimulation of the lower urinary tract mucosa of dogs by mechanical or chemical pathogenic factors. Most lower urinary tract infections will be accompanied by cystitis. Infection usually refers to bacterial translocation to the sterile lower urinary tract. The initial symptoms of lower urinary tract infection are often not obvious, and then there will be frequent licking of the genitals, swelling of the urethra, frequent urination, Hematuria, urine dripping pyuria and other symptoms. Common bacteria are Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus and so on. Most lower urinary tract infections are caused by a single microorganism, but there are also mixed infections of multiple microorganisms, and the prognosis of a single infection is mostly good.
In this paper, the treatment cases of lower urinary tract infection in male dogs are sorted out as follows.
1: Case information
1. Name: Xiaobai
2. Breed: Labrador
3. Age: 2 years old
4. Gender: Male
5. Visit time: April 2022
2: Medical history investigation
1. Problems when visiting a doctor: Frequent licking of genitals, purulent discharge, red and swollen penis, do not allow people to touch, frequent urination, barking when urinating.
2. Main statement: After mating with the female dog for 5 days, I found frequent licking of the genitals, barking when urinating, the number of times increased significantly, the foreskin of the penis became red and swollen, and some purulent secretions were used for self-use. The vulva cleaning agent was used for personal use, and it was taken orally for human use. Amoxicillin did not improve, there is a circle of leaders at home, the mental state is not bad, the appetite is normal, the urination is abnormal, the defecation is normal, and the history of deworming vaccine is complete. I didn’t take a bath recently, and the female dog was more aggressive when mated 5 days ago. I suspected that the mating damage caused corresponding problems and came to see a doctor.
3: Physical examination
1. Overall inspection
BCS: 5/9 Good condition, shiny coat, no skin lesions
2. General inspection
BW: 28KG T: 39.0℃ HR: 140/MIN RR: 30 times/MIN
3. System check
Auscultate regular heart rhythm, no heart murmur, palpate bladder pain, red and swollen penis, purulent discharge at urethral meatus, no dehydration
4. Laboratory examination
Inspection items: blood routine, acute reaction protein, urine routine, biochemistry, B-ultrasound
Acute Response Protein
Urine Sediment Staining
Routine blood leukocyte elevation and acute inflammatory response both indicate severe inflammation and infection. A large number of bacteria can be seen in urine sediment staining. Ultrasound examination shows thickened bladder wall and uneven mucosa. The direction of diagnosis is lower urinary tract infection.
4: Diagnosis and Treatment
1. Diagnosis: canine lower urinary tract infection
a. Antibiotic treatment: Baili 2.8ML/KG SC, Suo Nuo 1.4ML/KG SC once a day for 5 consecutive days
b. Pain management: butorphanol 2.8ML/KG SC once a day for five consecutive days
c. Chlorhexidine cleaning agent, wash the genitals once in the morning and evening, and use it continuously for 7 days
d. Elizabeth Circle
1. Urinary system problems need to do a complete urinary tract system examination to avoid missed detection. Ultrasound examination of male dogs also needs to scan the prostate to see if there is any enlargement or cyst. The prostate will also cause corresponding symptoms to avoid misdiagnosis.
2. Urinalysis should be collected by cystocentesis as far as possible, and evaluated by aerobic culture and antibiotic sensitivity test.
3. The location of UTI should be accurately determined, although the locations may overlap, based on clinical history, signs, physical examination results, and laboratory and imaging results.
4. Wear the Elizabeth ring during the medication to avoid secondary infection of the external skin caused by licking.
5. Drink as much water (clean) as possible during the medication, so that the body can produce a large amount of urine and speed up urination.
6. Recheck blood routine, acute reaction protein, B-ultrasound, and urine test after one week.
7. Do not perform mating behavior in the short term.
Two days after the withdrawal of the drug, the owner was unwilling to re-examine the laboratory examination due to the cost of the examination. He only carried out the overall physical re-examination. The spirit and appetite were normal, and the urination returned to normal. The appearance of the penis foreskin has no redness and swelling. The prognosis is good. If you want to be sure, further laboratory tests are recommended.
7: Disease pathogenesis and prevention
Urinary tract infections are very common in small animals. Almost all infections are caused by pathogenic bacteria, and some are caused by fungi or viruses, but they are relatively rare. Most bacterial lower urinary tract infections are caused by bacteria ascending to the external genitalia and urethra. Less commonly, bacteria spread through the blood and colonize the urinary tract. A number of innate preventive mechanisms help prevent lower urinary tract infections. Complete and regular urination, as well as the inherent properties of urine (hyperosmolarity, antimicrobial solutes), contribute to creating a microbiologically hostile urinary tract environment. Anatomical barriers and mucosal defenses further prevent virulent bacteria from adhering to the urothelium. However, when these defense mechanisms are insufficient, the pathogenic bacteria will increase the permeability of the urothelium, allow inflammatory solutes to enter the subepithelial membrane, and secrete inflammatory factors. The result is inflammation and pain, and the animals show dysuria, dripping urine and Blood in the urine. Lower urinary tract infection can be divided into urinary tract infection, bladder infection, and mixed infection is also possible. Those with mild symptoms do not need medication, and it is possible to heal themselves by drinking plenty of water and enhancing the body’s resistance. If symptoms develop from mild infection, timely intervention and treatment are required to avoid infection Upward development develops upper urinary tract mixed infection, and after kidney and ureter problems occur, treatment may be more troublesome at this time.
Good drinking and eating habits can greatly reduce the incidence of canine urinary tract diseases:
1. The host defense mechanism of the body can prevent the proliferation of urinary tract bacteria, so do not use antibiotics for long-term prevention.
2. Advocate eating wet food or other ways to promote drinking water, most of the urinary system diseases can be alleviated by increasing drinking water.
3. Keep the dog’s sanitation and environment clean and dry.
4. Walk the dog in the morning and evening, or train the dog to use the dog toilet to prevent the dog from holding back urine for a long time.
5. When mating during estrus, pay attention to the cleanliness of the genitals to avoid cross-infection.
6. For mating, try to find a docile partner for mating to avoid secondary infection caused by mechanical damage.
7. Dogs with a history of urinary diseases need to regularly consume the prescribed amount of urinary tract according to the doctor’s doctor’s order, and the consumption period is determined according to the follow-up visit.
8. Take nutrition and health supplements that protect the bladder mucosa and reduce the colonization of pathogenic bacteria.
9. In view of the nature of stones, reasonably reduce the intake of protein, calcium, magnesium, and oxalate.
10. Regular physical examination, early detection and early treatment.