The diagnosis and treatment of Canine acute kidney injury

Abstract

Acute renal failure (ARF) is also called acute kidney injury(AKI),which is a clinical syndrome of sudden decrease of glomerular filtration function(GFR). Dogs with acute onset and obvious clinical symptoms, often characterized by acute urine volume, electrolyte disorders, acid-base balance disorders and inability to excrete metabolites, rapid increases in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, and acute uremia. If the kidney tissue is not completely damaged, potential compensatory function can occur. In many cases, with careful treatment and care, the affected dog can regain adequate kidney function to maintain a normal life.In this case,i will introduce the diagnosis and treatment methods to AKI in canine.

Key words: Canine,diagnosis,treatment,AKI

Basic information

Name: DU DOU
Breed: Poodle
Sex: Female (castrated)
Age: 3 years old
Body weight: 10.5kg
History: Complete vaccination and deworming,canine distemper virus infection when she was young.
Owner took her to park recently, playing water in the outdoors during that time and eat a lot of mankind food(including purples). Yesterday ,the dog was found start to appear vomiting and weak.Owner found it lose appetite and in lower spirits than usual. So decide to took her to the hospital. Vaccinate history is completed and deworming in this year.

The diagnosis and treatment of Canine acute kidney injury

Physical examination:

Body weight 10.5kg,temperature 39.7℃,respiratory rate was 36/min,heart rate: 124 beats/min. No obvious murmurs in breathing. Mouth mucosa was red,capillary refill time(CRT)<2s,body condition score(BCS)was 6/9 which can no touch the ribs in palpation. The patient was presented with highly depression situation. Dry coat and nose. Abdominal palpation was found painful and swelling in the latter abdomen which was a position of the kidneys. There were mild dental calculus and gingivitis in oral examination. The surface hair of skin were bad. Mild dehydration was not found. Palpation the rate of the femoral artery was equal with the heart rate.

Laboratory examination
Complete Blood Count (CBC) examination for Day 1

Project

Result

Reference Range

WBC

19.8×103/uL

6.0~17.0

RBC

8.57×106/uL

5.5~10

HGB

14.6g/dL

12.0~18.0

HCT

53.1%

37~55

MCV

66fL

60~77

MCH

21.7pg

19~24.5

MCHC

32.9g/dL

30~37

PLT

247×103/uL

200~500

LYM%

23.5%

12~30

OTHR%

90.8%

60~86

EO%

5.7%

2~10

LYM#

0.3×103/uL

 

OTHR#

6.5×103/uL

 

EO#

0.4×103/uL

 

InterpretationThere was a mild increased in the leukocyte line. Red blood cell count and HCT indicate a possibility of dehydration that may have a low liquid volume,combined with the performance of the patient.
Idexx Catalyst biochemistry CHEM15

Project

Result

Reference Range

ALB

1.9g/dL

2.3-4.0

ALT

128U/L

10-100

ALKP

786U/L

23-212

AMYL

1450U/L

500-1500

AST

112 U/L

0-50

BUN

46.1mg/dL

7-27

CREA

590mg/dL

0.5-1.8

CK

138U/L

10-200

GGT

8U/L

0-7

LIPA

1560U/L

200-1800

PHOS

4.96mg/dL

2.5-6.8

TP

4.8g/dL

5.2-8.2

TBIL

>1000mg/dL

0-0.9

GLOB

2.9g/dL

2.5-4.5

GLU

39mg/dL

74-143

CHOL

355mg/dL

110-320

CA

8.7mg/dL

7.9-12.0

InterpretationThere was a obvious increase in ALT,ALKP,AST,BUN,CREA,TBIL,GGT,LIPA,CHOL which is a cue for the cell injury and dehydration. No obvious abnormalities in other biochemical indicators. If kidney function is close to normal, small changes in creatinine are accompanied by large changes in GFR. When renal function is significantly impaired, there are larger changes in creatinine and smaller changes in GFR. Therefore,serum creatinine is an insensitive indicator of mild renal insufficiency. Creatinine increases beyond the reference range until 75% of renal function loss occurs
The result of the CRP testing

Project

Result

Reference Range

CRP

24.0mg/L

<10mg/L

Interpretation:The increased of CRP was higher than normal indicating the existence of mild acute inflammation or tissue cell damage in the body.
The PCR result of infectious examination

Project

Result

Leptospira

(+)

Diagnosis

Acute kidney injury
The diagnosis methods in Canine Acute kidney injury usually used in veterinary clinical are consist of the physical examination findings or history,laboratory examination such as complete blood count,Biochemistry profile,symmetric dimethylarginine(SDMA) analysis,cytology,biopsy,histopathology, radiography,ultrasonography and even using advanced imaging. And in some situation,doctor will also take polymerase chain reaction(PCR)assay to look for the cue with acute kidney injury.
IT was difficult to diagnose acute kidney injury because multiple cause can lead to the disease. And,the categories of kidney injury are consist of different period like prerenal disease,intrinsic disease and postrenal disease which we will talk in the conclusion part. There are two main staging systems which are used to evaluate the acute kidney injury in dog,So based on serum creatinine results from biochemistry profile, there are two main canine AKI staging systems. But be attention that neither staging systems have been evaluated in cats. One such system is the modification of the International Society for Renal Interests (IRIS) program, which consists of phase I-V. Each stage can also be divided according to urine volume (i.e. oliguria, non-oliguria). Another system is the Veterinary Acute Kidney Injury (VAKI) Programme, which consists of four phases
According to the obvious result of the biochemistry profile and the history that eating purples,we had a highly suspect that the dog was suffer from acute kidney injury. Since lack of more examination in this case,the other cause may not be excluded.

The diagnosis and treatment of Canine acute kidney injury

Treatment

1. Amoxicillin clavulanic acid:15mg/kg s.c q24h
2.Gastroprotectants of omeprazole:1mg/kg s.c q24hrs
3.Furosemide: 2mg/kg q6h i.v
4.LRS + 0.9% NaCl solution(1:1) 55mL/kg ivgtt
5.Metoclopramide 0.01mg/kg/hr i.v CRI
6.Sucralfate  250mg p.o q12hrs
The target of treatment is to maintain and restore the renal hemodynamics. Promoting cell self-recovery.Increasing solute excretion.Reducing the toxicity of nephrotoxic materia.Maintaining urine output.Correcting the abnormalities of the fluid of acid-base and electrolyte. Treatment is more successful in the initiation stage and extension of AKI. Patients with poorly responding to acute renal injury are usually need to be hospitalized for at least a few days to treated with the body maintenance or recovery. The underlying cause of AKI must be identified and managed appropriately. For example, the grape/raisin poisoning in this case.NSAIDS drug are used with caution in AKI.
Extensive monitoring is required in AKI. Monitoring volume overload in patients treated with IV fluids is critical. Hydration status, respiration and heart rate, thoracoscopic auscultation, and weight measurements were performed at least every 4-6 hours during infusion therapy. Measurement of central venous pressure (CVP) can detect volume overload early in some report. A CVP of 5-7 cm H2O above baseline or an absolute CVP of > 10cm H2O indicates capacity overload,but it is hard to use this method in clinical. Blood pressure monitoring is also critical, as both hypotension and hypertension can lead to increased kidney damage. Hypertension is common in patients with AKI but is not an indicator of the severity of kidney damage. The development of hypertension during IV therapy is indicative of volume overload. Monitoring filled cell volume and total solids can provide an estimate of fluid balance.
After 7days of therapy,the patient has been recovery,and further examination about the function of kidney such as biochemistry and SDMA assay should be evaluated one month later.

The examination during the 3 days of therapy
Complete Blood Count (CBC) examination after therapy

Project

Result

Reference Range

WBC

16.8×103/uL

6.0~17.0

RBC

6.36×106/uL

5.5~10

HGB

16.4g/dL

12.0~18.0

HCT

46.1%

37~55

MCV

65fL

60~77

MCH

22.6pg

19~24.5

MCHC

33.1g/dL

30~37

PLT

201×103/uL

200~500

LYM%

20.5%

12~30

OTHR%

86.4%

60~86

EO%

2.1%

2~10

LYM#

0.1×103/uL

 

OTHR#

4.5×103/uL

 

EO#

0.1×103/uL

 
The diagnosis and treatment of Canine acute kidney injury

Conclusion

Definition and pathophysiology

Acute kidney injury (AKI), formerly known as acute renal failure (ARF), is a sudden and severe decline in kidney function that resulting in uremic waste retention,Abnormal circulating fluid and electrolyte and the acid base imbalance.
Because the kidneys receive about 20-25% of circulating cardiac output, they are susceptible to ischemic injury. Ischemia can lead to renal hypoperfusion, reduced renal toxin distribution volume, reduced renal tubular flow, and increased vasoconstriction. In order to maintain perfusion of the heart and brain in the presence of hemodynamic abnormalities, renal vasoconstriction leads to a decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Secondary hypotension (mean arterial pressure < 80mmhg) results in loss of the automatic regulation that normally helps maintain the renal perfusion.
Toxins can also cause the damage of kidney, especially blood-borne toxins. The surface of glomerular capillaries provides a large space for toxin-endothelial cell interactions. Tubular mechanisms increase the concentration of toxins in the distal kidney, high oxygen consumption and metabolic activity, and transcellular transport devices also contribute to the sensitivity of the kidney to toxins. Cortical structures (such as proximal tubules and Henle loops) have a high metabolic rate and receive 90% of the blood circulation in the kidney, and are prone to ischemic and toxic damage.
Type III hypersensitivity is associated with AKI in dogs injected with 25% human serum albumin. Sepsis can reduce glomerular capillary pressure which is another potential cause of AKI. Activate the inflammatory cascade.And lead to obstruction of the renal tubules. These changes lead to endothelial dysfunction, altered hemostasis, accelerated apoptosis, and induction of immunosuppression.

Phase of AKI

Initiation Phase:AKI totally has four stages. In the initial stage, motivational insults occur in the kidneys. GFR of kidney Direct tubular damage occurs, resulting in hypoxia and ATP depletion. ATP depletion leads to free radical formation, which also leads to further cell damage and changes in Na/K ATPase pumps. Abnormal Na/K ATPase pump function will lead to abnormal solute and electrolyte movement. The cells’ basement membrane connections are damaged, causing the cells to enter the tubular lumen to form a tubular cast. Tubular casting increases glomerular back pressure and further reducing of GFR. Renal ischemia can be aggravated by inflammation and constriction of afferent arterioles. The initial phase can last from several hours to several days, and clinical symptoms may not be present. Therapeutic interventions can prevent progression to subsequent stages.
Extension Phase:This phase will last for 1-2 days. Ischemia, hypoxia, inflammation, and cell damage persist. Additional endothelial damage, apoptosis, leukocyte activation and adhesion, and vascular congestion will Therapeutic interventions may or may not be successful at this stage.
Maintenance Phase:During the maintenance phase, GFR reached its lowest point. Urine volume may increase or decrease. Tubular cells begin to proliferate and migrate to rebuild tubular integrity. Blood flow ofthe kidney can return to normal. Apoptosis may be occurring. Irreversible kidney damage may occur. The maintenance period is 1-2 weeks.
Recovery Phase:Renal tubules are repaired during the recovery phase. GFR is elevated, but may not return to normal. Polyuria can occur with the restoration of tubular function and the accumulation of solute by osmotic diuresis. It can take weeks to months for kidney tissue to repair and regenerate.

Categories and Etiologies

Pre-renal disease: Prerenal of AKIis secondary to insufficiency of renal blood flow, abnormal perfusion pressure, or imbalance of renal vascular resistance is usually a complication of other diseases that cause systemic hemodynamic abnormalities. It does not initially cause renal morphological abnormalities and can be reversed by correction of hemodynamic changes. It is possible that the causes include hypovolemia, bleeding, hypotension, sepsis, anesthesia, renal vascular thrombosis, congestive heart failure, arrhythmia, trauma, burns, moderate fever, transfusion reaction, hypoproteinemia, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and liver failure.
Intrinsic disease:Endogenous AKI occurs in morphological changes of renal vessels, glomeruli, tubules or interstitium. Pre-renal AKI can eventually lead to this stage ofl AKI. Intrinsic AKI is one of the most challenging forms to treat. Possible causes include pyelonephritis, feline infectious peritonitis (cats), sepsis, leptospirosis (dogs), immune-mediated glomerulonephritis, Rocky Mountain macular fever (dogs), Lyme disease (dogs), hypercalcemia, amyloidosis, acute pancreatitis, neoplasia (the most common form of lymphoma), and certain toxins. In a study of 32 cats with congenital AKI, nephrotoxins account for 18 cases. It is known that the nephrotoxins include lilli (cat), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ethylene glycol, bissex B, aminoglycoside, doxorubicin, cisplatin, hemoglobin, myoglobin, snake or bee venom, mushrooms, cyclosporine, azathioprine, pesticides, radiocontrast agents (such as iodohexanol), mannitol and other diuretics, vitamin D metabolites (such as pet food phase) Kidney poisoning, rodent drug nephropathy), heavy metals, grapes/raisins (dogs), and melamine (e.g. pet food related nephrotoxins).In this case,grapes are considered to be a toxin to our patient.
Post-renal diseases:Postrenal of AKI occurs when urine leaks into the abdomen, urethra obstruction, bilateral ureteral obstruction, or unilateral ureteral obstruction may happen with normal renal function. Urinary tract obstruction reduces renal clearance and increases renal back pressure. Possible causes include urethral or kidney stones, urethral or ureter stenosis, tumors, mucus obstruction, and trauma. Although postrenal AKI can be quickly corrected by treating the underlying cause, postrenal AKI can lead to intrinsicof

Diagnosis and treatment of a dog with pyometra

Abstract

Canine pyometra refers to a disease in which a large amount of pus accumulates in the uterine cavity of dogs, accompanied by abnormal endometrial hyperplasia and bacterial infection. According to whether the cervix is open or not, it can be divided into closed type and open type. The disease is more common in older animals older than 7 years, and often occurs 2 to 4 weeks after estrus. The clinical manifestations are depression, decreased appetite, polydipsia and polyuria, vomiting, vulvar discharge (open type), weight loss, and increased abdominal circumference.
In this paper, the canine atresia pyometra was mainly treated with surgery and achieved a good prognosis. The cases are organized as follows.

1: Patient Information

1.Name: Kimi
2.Breeds: Schnauzer
3.Age: 7 years old
4.Gender: female
5.Diagnosis time: March 2022

2: Medical History Investigation

1.Diagnose the problem: lethargy, lack of activity, enlarged stomach, vomiting, fever
2.Main statement: The dog has a loss of appetite for about a week, likes to lie down, does not like to move, the stomach seems to be a little bigger, the stool is less, frequent urination, vomiting 3 times, not neutered, the estrus time is extended this year, deworming and vaccination on time vaccine. The owner gave the dog amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium and it did not improve. Today, the owner found that its ears became hot, and then brought it to our hospital for treatment.

3: Physical Examination

1.Overall inspection
BCS4/9 Good body condition, poor skin tone
2.General inspection
BW: 7kg, T: 39, 8, HR90 times/min, RR: 25 times/min
3.System check
Auscultate heart rhythm, no obvious heart murmur, mild abdominal pain on palpation, tubular contents, clean anus, no obvious abnormality of vulva, dry hair, excessive licking of limbs, dehydration assessment 5
4.Laboratory tests
Inspection items: blood routine, acute reaction protein, biochemistry, image X-ray and abdominal B-ultrasound

Blood Routine

Project

Test Result

Reference Range

WBC

31.2×10^9/L

6-16.9

LYM#

7.5×10^9/L

1.1-6.3

GRA#

22×10^9/L

3.30-12.00

RBC

5.2×10^12/L

5.50-8.50

HGB

11.9g/dl

12.0-18.0

HCT

49.1%

37.0-55.0

MCHC

34.0g/dl

30.0-36.9

PLT

167K/μL

175-550

Acute inflammatory

Project

Test Result

Reference Range

CRP

196mg/L

<20mg/L

Biochemical

Project

Test Result

Reference Range

TP

24.1g/l

23-40

ALB

70.3g/l

52-82

GLOB

46.2g/l

23-45

A/G

0.52

 

ALT

98u/l

5-125

ALP

614u/l

17-212

GREA

719.0umol/l

44-159

BUN

37.78umol/l

2.5-9.6

BUN/Creatinine

52.548

16-218

Blood Glucose

5.29umol/l

4.11-7.94

X-ray
Diagnosis and treatment of a dog with pyometra

B Ultrasound
Diagnosis and treatment of a dog with pyometra

Routine blood anemia, inflammation, blood smear a large number of neutrophils, acute reaction protein severe acute inflammation infection, imaging X-ray dogs can see homogeneous tubular images in the abdomen and posterior abdomen, multiple mixed echoes in front of the bladder displayed by B-ultrasound Liquid dark area. Combined with the clinical history, the direction of diagnosis is pathological uterine lesions in the reproductive system, and azotemia caused by acute loss of kidneys. An increase in alkaline phosphatase will prompt steroids, and further consideration needs to be given to endocrine diseases caused by estrogen.

4: Diagnosis and treatment

1.Diagnosis: canine atresia pyometra
2.Treatments:
Surgical treatment: Surgical removal of pathological ovaries and uterus
Medical Treatment: Kidney Loss

Before surgery:
1.In view of the fact that the dog is dehydrated and has low blood pressure, a routine rehydration was performed first to increase blood pressure and improve azotemia and acid-base balance in the body.
2.Give cephalosporin antibiotics 2 hours before the operation.
3.Preoperative blood coagulation test: normal

During surgery:
Open the dual forelimb veins, shave and disinfect the surgical department, prepare blood pressure and heart rate detection equipment, and emergency medicine and equipment for surgery
1: Intravenous access 1: iv: Slow intravenous infusion after dilution of lidocaine to maintain a stable heart rhythm and have a certain sedative and pain relief effect
2: Intravenous access 2: iv: Lingner lactate to maintain blood pressure

After surgery:
Pain relief, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and wound care are required
1~5 days medication
1: iv: 0.9% NACL100ML + cephalosporin third generation 0.7ML
2: iv: G/S100ML+ energy group
3:iv:LRS150
4: iv: Lidocaine 5ML+0.9NACL% 50ML
5: sc: Enrofloxacin 0.7ML
6: sc : Butorphanol 0.7ML
7: sc: vitamin B complex 0.7ML
8: Bailing Jinfang Wound Spray
9: Headgear
10: Surgical gown
11: Hospital monitoring
12: PO kidney medicine × 14

5: Notes

1. Although the diseased uterus and ovaries are surgically removed, there is still a dangerous state after the operation. After the operation, you still need to be hospitalized for 24 to 72 hours to observe the breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, etc.
2. Due to the infection of the uterine Asahi endotoxin to the whole body, there may still be blood sepsis after the operation, and regular blood routine and blood gas analysis are required after the operation.
3. Lesions in other systems may be secondary to the operation, such as renal failure, liver, spleen heterotopic myeloid tissue formation, hemorrhage and atrophy of the adrenal cortex and medulla, and the postoperative risk period is one week. Death may occur.
4. Antibiotic treatment should be rechecked at least five days after the operation, and the medication can only be stopped after the blood indicators are qualified.
5. Inflammatory response syndrome may cause systemic hypovolemic shock
6. Any changes during hospitalization require adjustment of medication
7. There may still be a small amount of secretions from the vulva in the early stage after the operation. Tell the owner in advance that after the treatment, the infection will be controlled and it will improve.
8. Review metrics based on recovery
9. Wound care requires daily routine dressing changes, and stitches are usually removed within one week to ten days.

6: Prognosis

Ovariohysterectomy is the best way to cure this disease as soon as possible for closed pyometra. After the operation, the dog’s desire to defecate and defecate was normal, and the wound returned to normal. The sutures were removed and discharged after 10 days. The follow-up visit was normal one week after discharge, and the prognosis was good.
Diseased Uterus
Diagnosis and treatment of a dog with pyometra

The fifth day of surgery
Diagnosis and treatment of a dog with pyometra

7: Pathogenesis and Prevention of Diseases

Pyometrium is the accumulation of purulent substances in the uterine cavity. It is a cystic endometrial hyperplasia and inflammation. Among them, the incidence is more frequent in elderly dogs, dogs without production and dogs with production, and the incidence rate will also increase with a history of hormone therapy. The disease mainly occurs in the late stage of estrus, when progesterone promotes the growth of endometrium and secretion of glands, and reduces the activity of uterine smooth muscle. Excessive progesterone will cause the uterine glandular tissue to become cystic edema and thinner. At the same time, with the exudation of lymphocytes and cells, fluid will accumulate in the uterine glands and uterine cavity, and eventually develop into cystic uterus Membrane hyperplasia. Progesterone can inhibit the contraction of uterine smooth muscle and hinder the normal excretion of the uterus. Progesterone can also inhibit the bacterial proliferation of white blood cells against bacterial infection, resulting in pyometra. Estrogens increase the number of uterine progesterone receptors, so use of estrogens during estrus increases the risk of pyometra. Uterine tumors can also cause discharge of uterine secretions, causing pyometra. Infection increases morbidity and mortality in pyometra. According to whether the cervix is open or not, the disease can be divided into two types: atresia and open. Dogs with an open cervix will discharge viscous purulent secretions, often with blood. In sick dogs with cervical atresia, the symmetrical distension of both sides of the lower abdomen is especially obvious, and the atresia uterine asphyxia can easily lead to animal sepsis, shock and death. The prevention of the disease suggests that female dogs who do not plan to breed should be sterilized as soon as possible, which can not only prevent pyometra but also reduce mammary gland diseases.

10 Best Dog Car Net Barriers for keeping pups in the Back Seat

Do you want to purchase a dog car net barrier at a reasonable price? Loobani.com is here to help you in this regard.
You need to travel with your dog in the car once in a while. Therefore, what you can do for yourself and your pup is to make this experience safe and clean.
Car net barriers for dogs are made to keep your puppy and car safe. Your dog might enjoy car riding, but it can be dangerous as he wants to jump in the front seat to be with you. That’s where these car net barriers for dogs are made.
A variety of car dog net barrier options are available in the market. You might need more evidence to choose the best one without wasting money. But take it easy; we are here to guide you about the best dog car net barriers that will keep your pup in the backseat safe. After reading this article, you will surely be capable of choosing the best dog car net barrier. So, let’s get started without wasting any time.

How Are Dog Car Barriers Helpful?

Before we go into further details, let’s find out first what net dog guard for car are and how they benefit you and your dog. A dog netting for car is an obstacle between you and your dog to prevent him from jumping to the front seat of the car and distracting the driver.
Numerous options are available, like canine car harnesses, dog seat belts, booster seats, and car barriers to keep your pup safe during the car journey. But are these car barriers beneficial? Let’s find out.

Prevents the driver from Distraction

These net car dog guards are practical safety measures if you have a car ride with your pet. Your furry friend often jumps to the front seat to sit on your lap and wants to distract you while driving. These dog car barriers also keep your dog safe from accidents.

Protects Car Interiors

These dog car nets keep your pup limited to one place. Therefore, they save your car interiors from any damage that might occur because of your pup’s movement.

Reduces Anxiety

Dog car safety net guards also reduce the anxiety of your furry friend. Dogs often get nervous during car rides, especially if it’s their first time. So, you often notice your dog less anxious as he is restricted to one area because of these car barriers.

Best Dog Car Net Barriers

Here are the top rated net barriers on amazon for restraining dogs in car that can be used in cars that will keep you and your pup safe during car rides:

Dog Car Net Barrier
  • DURABLE MATERIAL

  • FULL COVERAGE AREA

  • FOUR TYPES POCKETS

  • EASY INSTALLATION

This easily adjustable and flexible car dog guard safety net barrier is 38.5 in length and 46.4 in width. Dog net for a car is appropriate for most vehicles, including cars, SUVs, trucks, jeeps, and mini-vehicles. Before you buy this dog barrier, it’s recommended to measure the space between the headrests of a car’s front seats and the height and width of the front seats.

Here are some essential features of this dog net for cars:
Durable Material-The net barrier is designed of scratch and tear-resistant durable fabric containing Textilene mesh. The Oxford cloth helps make both sides of this car net dog barrier. The middle mesh design allows good ventilation to reach your dog. It contains back-seat rider nylon net car dog barrier that is strong enough.
Full Coverage Area-The pet car barrier enhances driving safety by keeping your pup in the back seat and covers the entire space between each front seat.
Pockets– Another exciting feature is that the compartments are made on both sides of the barrier to keep water bottles and your pooch toys. One of its pockets is sealed, so your pet can’t access the things stored in it. The dog car net divider can be folded easily for storage when not used.
Easy Installation-Our car boot net dog is easy-to-install and can be easily removed without requiring any tools. You can place the mesh head cover on the car headrest. After that, adjust the strap tightness according to your requirement and fix the rope at the seat bottom, and you are good to go.

Bushwhacker - Deluxe Dog Barrier 50" Wide - Ideal for Smaller Cars
  • Barrier is made with scratch and tear resistant pet screen. 

  • Half inch light weight metal tubing maintains barriers shape and prevents dogs from squeezing over, under, or around barrier.
  • Attaches to front seat headrest and either the seat belt mount or around car seat frame.

  • Dimensions: 50 inches wide tapering to 42″ at the top. Ideal for mid-sized sedans, small trucks and small SUV’s. Not large enough consider our 56 inch model.
  • Refer to last image for detailed dimensions. 

A net barrier is a better option for dogs, so consider this unique Bushwhacker Paws “n” Claws Cargo Area Dog Barrier. This mesh net barrier is designed to keep your dog in the cargo area and is also effective for front seats. Besides, this barrier has a lightweight metal frame and is available in three different sizes.

Let’s move toward the features of this cargo net for dogs in cars:
Mesh Material- The material used in this net barrier is mesh, so it doesn’t block the airflow in a car. The mesh net for dog mounts in rear of car. You don’t need to be stressed out that your dog is getting too hot. Enough air can pass through this barrier to reach your dog.
Scratchproof Barrier- This dog car safety net is composed of tear-resistant material. So, it will not get affected even if your pup scratches it in confusion.
Four Attachment Points- Alongside the two nylon straps that provide barrier attachment to the headrests, two additional straps are at the bottom of this net barrier. The purpose of these straps is to give extra security to a dog.
Lightweight Metal Frame- Another fantastic feature of Bushwhacker is its metal frame which is lightweight but durable. A withstand net to keep dogs in back of car.

PROS
The extra security feature makes this net barrier an excellent choice for your dog. The net-style design limits your pup’s ability to reach the front seat in any way. Models of 50-inch and 56-inch are available that are designed for bigger SUVs and trucks.

CONS
The frame of this net barrier needs assembly, and the instructions mentioned on the packing could be more helpful in buyers’ opinion. Besides, this fine-woven mesh can reduce rearview visibility. Another shortcoming of the Bushwhacker dog barrier is that it can be easily tearable.

Wellbro Dog Car Backseat Barrier, Padded and Durable Nylon Net Pet Barrier
  • SAFE DRIVING: This durable pet barrier attaches to the back of car front seats to prevent pets from launching into the front seats

  • DOUBLE MESH WINDOWS: The upper mesh window makes the dog visible to driver and let the dog see the front view to create a reliable environment

  • EASY FOR INSTALLATION AND STORAGE: This car dog net barrier is easy to be installed and removed with 4 hooks fit around the headrest and bottom of seat

  • FIT MOST CARS

Wellbro Dog Car Backset Barrier has a uniquely stylish design with a center console, works for a long time, and is machine-washable. For good airflow and visibility, two mesh windows are made. This net barrier has top and bottom attachments to provide extra security.

Some essential features of this dog net barrier are:
Nylon fabric- The dog net barrier is composed of nylon; it can be washed in the machine and withstand scratching and pawing.
Mesh Windows- Through a top window, you can keep an eye on your pup, and he can also see you and feel safe. The bottom window is designed for ventilation.
Extra Wide- The net barrier is 24 inches from all sides and is made to cover the middle space in a car.

PROS
Wellbro backseat car barrier is a scratch-resistant and safe option for dogs who can have fun while sitting in the back seat. Its unique appearance is a plus point, so it doesn’t look imperfect.

CONS
Not all cars are identical; therefore, something must be under your car’s seat to attach bottom hooks. Also, this barrier is not so tall, so your big dog can jump over it.

SCENEREAL Pet Dog Net Vehicle Barriers
  • MATERIAL: The upper part and middle part of the barrier are adopted with durable elastic mesh. 

  • CONVENIENT: Behind the barrier, both sides have pockets to store dog toys or treats. 

  • EASY TO INSTALL: Both top and bottom have 2 adjustable straps. 

  • SAFETY: The barrier help prevent from your dog breaking into the cab and bother you driving, this greatly increase security when you driving out with your dog

Are you searching for a more flexible and less strong dog car barrier? Then, check out SCENEREAL Dog Net Vehicle Barrier. Because of its easy folding, this net barrier can be stored easily when not required. It is recommended for those dog owners who don’t mind their dog sitting in the back seat as it is pretty vast.

Some general features of SCENEREAL Dog Mesh Net Vehicle Car Barrier are discussed below:
Flexible but stabilize its shape- The dog net car barrier has a foldable rod on the top, allowing shape maintenance and flexibility.
Pockets- Numerous pockets are made on the front and back side of this net barrier where you can place your dog’s toys and treats. Amazing or not? Well, indeed, you have got enough room to keep such items. 
Mesh fabric- The mesh fabric material allows good ventilation. Plus, you can easily see your dog on the back seats through the loosely-woven mesh.

PROS
This storage-friendly dog net barrier is affordable for dog owners and is easy to install. Moreover, it is pretty spacious, which makes it the best choice.

CONS
This barrier is easy-to-break compared to substantial cage barriers. It might not be a suitable option for adult dogs when getting panicked in a car.

Ergotech Dog Guard, Pet Barrier for Subaru XV and Crosstrek
  • Dog Guard, Pet Barrier for SUBARU XV and Crosstrek, car model produced from 2012 to 2017

  • Elegant, strong and safe, it’s easy to be mounted to the headrests! No drilling needed.

  • Made up of a metal frame and a high tenacity nylon net to improve safety and comfort in case of hard braking

  • NOTICE: Please take note that orders shipped outside of the European Union will be subject to import duty. 

Let’s have a look at Ergotech Dog Guard. This car safety net for dogs is explicitly designed for the Subaru Impreza hatchback. If you want an inexpensive dog car barrier, go for it; however, it is vehicle specific.

If you have yet to train your dog well or are traveling in another vehicle, this car barrier is certainly not a choice. Besides, it can’t withstand pawing as it is composed only of a net. So, compared to other options, it could be more durable. You can use it as a cargo net for dogs in cars.

Pros
What makes it a suitable choice for dog owners is:

  • It is vehicle specific
  • Easily affordable (inexpensive)

Cons

  • Not designed for all vehicles
  • Isn’t tear resistant
  • Composed solely of a net
DYKESON Pet Barrier Dog Car Net Barrier with Auto Safety Mesh Organizer Baby Stretchable Storage Bag Universal for Cars
  • Dog car barrier helps prevent accidents and distractions.

  • Four-Sided elastic dual mesh: The pet car barrier adopted durable polyester an extra thick (but still lightweight) dual-mesh design.

  • Easy to install with included hooks: Four safety hooks that quickly clip to your car’s headrests on the top and the seat from underneath. 

  • As a car storage: Space-saving, mount on the middle gap between the left & right seats, or the seat back, you can store everything from grocery lists and your purse to dog toys and tablets. 

If you don’t want cage dog barriers in your car, you can try alternatives like DYKESON Dog Car Net Barrier. This four-sided barrier keeps your pup at a distance from the gear control. On top of that, it gives you enough room to store things in between the mesh fabric.
This car net barrier for dogs is designed with a strong polyester with an elastic opening at the top, which allows the item storage. This lightweight but thick fiber allows easy attachment between the seats. It is also considered as dog day care franchise net worth restrictions.
Four safety hooks are present to provide attachment to the upper and lower parts of car seats. This attachment can be done with just clipping without any need for drilling or hammering. It is easily adjustable and suitable for various vehicle models. It rarely gets out from the position, even when stretched out.
Some features of this dog car net barrier include:

  • Highly expandable
  • Easy-to-install
  • Highly spacious
  • Lightweight and pretty affordable
  • Suitable for small dog breeds

PROS
What makes it unique is its excellent storage capacity. Also, it is a suitable option for small-breed dogs.

CONS
Unfortunately, a dog can hop over it because of its small size.

Kurgo Backseat Dog Barrier for Cars & Suv
  • REDUCE DRIVING DISTRACTIONS: This durable pet barrier attaches to the back of your front seats, keeping your dog contained and out of the front seat while you’re driving. 

  • PROTECT YOUR DOG: During quick stops, the Kurgo Backseat Barrier prevents your dog from launching into the front seat, injuring Fido and other passengers. 

  • UNIVERSAL FIT: The Backseat Barrier is made to universally fit most vehicles. 

  • EASY INSTALLATION: Simple installation and removal makes it easy to take your dog with you anytime, anywhere. 

Kurgo Back Seat Dog Barrier for Cars and Suv is the best car dog net barrier that prevents your dog from shedding in the front seat. Because of its convenient design, your dog can glimpse the front area through the top of the barrier.
This dog guard net for car allows good ventilation in the front and back seats and has a great storage place. The barrier protects your dog from jumping in the front seat when you apply sudden brakes. Although it can fit in any vehicle model, avoid using this barrier in two-door cars or vans.
Here are some typical features of this dog car guard net barrier:

  • Protect front seat areas from your pup’s interference
  • Allows good airflow
  • Prevent your dog from injury because of sudden braking
  • Have cup holder space

PROS
You can have easy access to your dog and can pat him while driving

CONS
It is not appropriate for two-door vehicles.

High Road Dog Barrier Gate for Cars and SUVs with Full View Panel and Padded Steel Frame for Medium and Large Dogs
  • Block the Seat Without Blocking the View – sturdy metal dog barrier with chew-resistant coated mesh panel allows a full view of the front seat to help reduce ride stress

  • Sturdy Rigid Top Panel Won’t Bend or Fold – durable steel frame with protective foam bumpers 

  • Keeps Medium and Large Dogs Safely in the Back Seat – adjustable height and wider at the top to prevent dogs from jumping over the gate.

  • Can Be Positioned Higher or Lower on the Seatback – includes 4 adjustable straps that can be positioned 2-ways on the frame.

  • Easy to Install and Use – includes assembly and installation instructions, disassembles for compact storage, spot clean. 

High Road Dog Car Barrier will work if you desire to hold your pet in the backseat. The barrier has a durable steel frame containing chew-resistant mesh. You can safely attach it to the back of the car’s front seats.
Let’s explore what this High Road Dog Car Barrier holds for you:
It blocks the dog’s approach to the front seat without blocking the view, so you don’t need to take the stress regarding your pet while driving. This car dog net barrier contains four adjustable straps fixed on the frame in two ways, with a bottom cord that attaches to the seat bottom for extra security. It can be adjusted to the lower position if the top bar blocks the rear viewing. Further, it can be disassembled when not in use or for cleaning it.
Its top panel is a durable steel frame that allows stability and contains durable coated polyester mesh from top to bottom.

Pros

  • This budget-friendly barrier is best for keeping medium and large sized-dogs in the backseat because of its large size.
  • It is adjustable and can be mounted higher or lower on the back of the front seats.
  • The barrier is easy to install and has instructions for assembly and disassembly.

Cons

  • Poor ventilation because of the tightly-woven mesh
4Knines Automotive Pet Deterrent Barrier
  • Block the Seat Without Blocking the View – sturdy metal dog barrier with chew-resistant coated mesh panel allows a full view of the front seat to help reduce ride stress

  • Sturdy Rigid Top Panel Won’t Bend or Fold – durable steel frame with protective foam bumpers 

  • Keeps Medium and Large Dogs Safely in the Back Seat – adjustable height and wider at the top to prevent dogs from jumping over the gate.

  • Can Be Positioned Higher or Lower on the Seatback – includes 4 adjustable straps that can be positioned 2-ways on the frame.

  • Easy to Install and Use – includes assembly and installation instructions, disassembles for compact storage, spot clean. 

Do you want a lightweight, budget-friendly dog safety net for cars? 4Knines Automotive Pet Deterrent Barrier is perfect in this case. Although it is affordable, it is less spacious and has less durability. You can hook it around the front seat headrests.
One exciting feature is its central mesh, allowing your dog to see through to the front seat. Most dogs get anxious when they can’t see their owner in the car, so this mesh material tells a dog about his owner’s presence. It is the dog net for car uk.
Let’s figure out the pros and cons of net car dog guard barrier:

Pros

  • Easily Affordable
  • Easy installation
  • See-through window

Cons

  • It has no extra storage
  • Not suitable for large vehicles
AMEIQ 3-Layer Car Mesh Organizer, Seat Back Net Bag, Barrier of Backseat Pet Kids
  • Innovative Design Purpose: Store a lot of things, dedicated location for ladies’ bags, barrier for pets and children in the back seat

  • This Mesh Bag is Made of High-quality Materials: It has 4 metal fasteners, the upper 2 carabiners are aluminum alloy, and the below 2 hooks are nickel plated steel; The Mesh Material of This Car Organizer is Super Strong Performance: High quality nylon, inelastic, the net bed made of it can bear the weight of 6 adults

  • Installation of This Handbag Holder is Very Simple: At the top, just buckle the headrest column, at the bottom, just hook the hard edge of any object under the seat, and in the middle, fix it to the armrest box with the rope on

  • The Size of This Pet Barrier is Large Enough: Height 12.0 in, Width 11.6 in, it can completely cover the gap between the front 2 seats, and let us put more things in

Are you looking for a long-term net to keep dogs in the back of a car? Check out this AMEIQ 3-Layer Car Mesh Organizer, which is easily adjustable.

This dog barrier has the following considerable features:
Easy Installation- This dog net for cars is easy to install without any tool. You can attach the hooks to the sidebars and the bottom, stretching the bungee cords according to your need. One person can easily install or remove it in no time.
Entirely Adjustability- This car window net for dogs is highly elastic and flexible and can be customized according to your car’s backseat area. Because of its adjustability, you can install this barrier in SUVs, hatchbacks, and caravans. These contain dog net gate for car.
Long-Term Use- This dog barrier can function for a long time. The size of the hooks is adjustable to fit the sidebars and the bottom of the seats.
Safe Driving- Dog net barrier enhances driving safety. It keeps you less distracted while driving as you don’t have any tension about your pet’s safety.
Pretty Spacious-The dog mesh net vehicle car barrier provides enough storage to keep bottles, books, and other small items. It holds such items firmly and prevents them from falling during driving.

How to Install A Dog Net in a Car?

You can easily install a dog car barrier in the middle of the car to ensure your pet’s safety during car rides. Its installation depends on the model and where you will fix it. Most of the products in the market are easily adjustable, but they are only sometimes appropriate for some vehicle types.
Avoid buying those dog safety nets for cars that need drilling holes in the vehicle for fixation. One suitable option is to opt for a barrier that can be attached to the headrests or hung between the ceiling and floor of the passenger area.
Here’s how you can install these net barriers in your vehicles:

Placement
Before buying a net barrier of your choice, it’s necessary to determine where to place it in the car. It might be possible that the barrier is not much taller to reach the car seats and can be problematic and a waste of money. Also, you need to consider the size of your pet as well. So, it’s better to read the instructions mentioned on the packaging. Make sure these car dog guard nets are placed a few inches above the bottom of the car seat, depending on your need.

Measurement
Before installing dog net barriers, you need to measure where the top of this net pet barrier will be attached to the vehicle ceiling. To make it easier, try to take the measurements vertically and horizontally. Also, measure the upper corner of this dog barrier before installing it. That’s because sometimes the measurement details of the product differ from what you get the first time.

Outline
Along with the placement and measurement, the outline is also necessary to consider. A car dog net divider usually comes with security designs similar to materials that can be used as a template for accurate measurements. You can hold this net barrier against the outline to verify the measurements.

Assembly
For assembly, you can refer to the installation guide mentioned in the packing. You can put the grip headcover of this net barrier on the car headrest according to your comfort. After that, you can attach the lower adjustment ropes to the bottom of the car seat and check if it’s okay. You can have an enjoyable journey with your pet in a car.

10 Best Dog Car Net Barriers for keeping pups in the Back Seat

Things to Consider When Buying Best Dog Car Barriers

Here is complete guidance on what to look for while choosing the best dog guard net for a car.

Material
If you have a curious pup on a cat journey, it’s better to go for car barriers made of rigid material. A fragile car barrier will not resist pawing or your pet’s scratching, and it’s not worth buying.
The material of a net barrier should be able to withstand the force or pressure of an even aggressive pooch. If the material of the barrier is composed of fabric, it should be easy to clean and machine-friendly.

Dog Size
Another thing that you need to consider while buying a net dog barrier for a car is your pooch size. Some dog barriers are suitable for medium and large-size dogs. If this barrier is of the wrong size, you are just wasting your money, and neither does it protect your car and dog. So, always keep in mind your pet’s size before purchasing.

Car Dimensions
The car dimensions are also essential as these barriers are usually fixed between the car ceiling and the bottom of the seats. Therefore, choose those car nets for dogs that are accurate to your car’s dimensions and can fit well. Some scratch-resistant barriers are also available in the market that is generally considered best, so opt for such net barriers.

Installation
Always consider those dog car barriers that are easy to install and can also remove easily. Consider lightweight options; therefore, you don’t have to spend so much energy during installation, and they can be put away when not needed.

Storage Options
Pockets or compartments are a great addition to these dog car nets. They provide enough space to keep your pet’s toys, treats, or other essentials easily assessable while driving.

Things to Consider While Buying Online

Please remember a few things about these dog net barriers while shopping online. These include:

Customer Reviews
Online sites like Amazon and Overstock have a review section that includes customer feedback and pictures of the purchased product. Going through these reviews before buying anything is a good thing to do. These reviews will help you decide whether the desired product will benefit you.
You can also learn about the product’s pros and cons. Also, it’s better to check the website’s rating and decide to buy this product.

Features
While shopping for these dog net barriers online, consider the product features that matter most. Read the product description carefully and check the customer feedback to know what others think of that product. One smart thing you can do for the best purchase is to compare the prices of the products on different authentic websites.

Quality
Product quality is also essential to consider while selecting the product. The dog cannot pass through car net. The product quality generally depends on its brand. Some brands focus on long-term product use, while others concentrate on product service. So, scrutinize each brand’s vision before choosing the product of your need.

FAQs Regarding Dog Car Barriers

What Is A Dog Car Barrier?

A dog car barrier is a dog accessory installed on the back of front car seats or cargo to keep dogs limited to only back seats while you drive. These dog barriers can be used for storage, as vehicle seat covers, and as protective barriers for you or your family along with a dog in a car’s journey.

Are Dog Car Barriers Universal?

Most are universally fit, but only sometimes do they work 100% in any car vehicle they are installed. It depends on how well you choose them according to your car’s interior dimensions.

How Safe Are Car Safety Nets for Dogs?

The dog safety nets for cars are designed specifically for a dog’s safety and for anyone traveling in a car. They protect your furry friend from injury or damage that might happen because he often jumps on the front seats. Your dog will also get relief by looking through the car net that you are also with him in a car.

10 Best Dog Car Net Barriers for keeping pups in the Back Seat

Conclusion

To sum up, a variety of dog net barriers are available, but each one of them has some pros and cons. You can select the best one from the above dog car barriers by considering its material, car dimensions, and whether it is of long-term use or not. Dog car barriers will keep everyone safe while traveling with your pet in a car.

The diagnosis and treatment of Canine Babesiosis

Abstract

Parasites of the genus babesia is a type of blood protozoans that can infect red blood cells of vertebrate hosts. Two species of babesia have been reported to infect dogs: Babesia Canis and Canine Babesia gibsoni.Traditionally, these creatures have been distinguished by their appearance on blood-stained smears.The firstly creatures are larger, appearing as two-leafed piriform creatures, often in pairs, about 4-5 um in length. The organisms of Canine Babesia gibsoni are smaller (1-2.5 um in diameter) and are round, oval, or ring-shaped in red blood cells, usually as a single plant. Babesia Canis is endemic in Europe, southern Africa, Asia and the Americas. There are 3 subtypes of Babes:B. canis canis, B. canis vogeli, and B. canis rossi. These strains differ in virulence, geographic location, and tick vectors, but are identical in appearance. In the United States, the most common strain is Lactobacillus Canis, which is the least pathogenic. Although severe hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and life-threatening diseases have been reported in young dogs, severe parasitism in dogs, and transfusions of infected blood in dogs.In the United States, most dogs infected with B. Canis are subclinical carriers. Although not highly pathogenic, the canine B. canis vogeli organism appears to be endemic in the southeastern United States, particularly among greyhounds. A recent study distinguished three subspecies of Babesia Canis by polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme analysis, suggesting that they may in fact be closely related, but distinct and independent species. The most pathogenic dog type B is endemic to South Africa. Babesians are found in parts of Europe and Asia and are considered intermediate pathogenic.So it is a big challenge to diagnose of this disease.The purpose of this article was to introduce the current diagnostic evidence and the relating to the treatment of Canine Babesiosis in dogs.

Key words : Canine Babesiosis, diagnosis, treatment

Basic information

Name:HUAN HUAN
Breed:Golden Retriever
Sex:Female (castrated)
Age:4 years old
Body weight:25.5kg
History:outdoor activities,complete vaccination,no deworming,gastroenteritits one year ago
Owner took her to countryside half month ago, playing in the outdoors during that time.Two days ago,the dog started to appear lethargic and weak.Owner found it walk in a incoordinate post when walking dog.So decide to took her to the hospital.Vaccinate history is completed.No deworming in this year.

Physical examination

Body weight 25.5kg,temperature 39.7℃,respiratory rate was 80/min, heart rate:110 beats/min.No obvious murmurs in breathing .Mouth mucosa was pale,capillary refill time(CRT)<2s, body condition score(BCS)was 6/9 which can no touch the ribs in palpation.The patient was presented with depression dry coat and nose. Abdominal palpation was no obvious abnormal findin in abdomen.There were mild dental calculus and gingivitis in oral examination.Multiple areas of skin were soft. Obvious dehydration was not found.

Laboratory examination
Complete Blood Count (CBC) examination for Day 1

Project

Result

Reference Range

WBC

11.8×103/μL

6.0~17.0

RBC

1.67×106/μL

5.5~10

HGB

3.2g/dL

12.0~18.0

HCT

10.7%

37~55

MCV

64.1fL

60~77

MCH

19.2pg

19~24.5

MCHC

29.9g/dL

30~37

PLT

148

200~500

LYM%

25.4%

12~30

OTHR%

68.8%

60~86

EO%

6.0%

2~10

LYM

3.0

1.5-7

OTHR

8.1

2.5-12.5

EO

0.7

0-1.5

WBC

11.8×103/μL

6.0~17.0

RBC

1.67×106/μL

5.5~10

HGB

3.2g/dL

12.0~18.0

Interpretation: No obvious abnormality was observed in the leukocyte line. Severe low red blood cell count and HCT indicate positive cell hypochromic anemia and low blood volume, which may indicate iron deficiency anemia or anemia caused by chronic diseases Low platelet count

Idexx Catalyst biochemistry CHEM15

Project

Unit

Reference Range

Result

ALP

U/L

23-212

76

ALT

U/L

10-125

23

BUN

mmol/L

2.5-9.6

3.5

Ca

mmol/L

1.98-3.00

2.15

CRE

umol/L

44-159

45

GGT-γ

U/L

1-10

1

GLU

mmol/L

4.11-7.94

5.48

TP

g/L

52-82

71

TBIL

umol/L

0-15

9

ALB

g/L

23-40

26

TCHO

mmol/L

2,84-8.27

4.84

PHOS

mmol/L

0.81-2.19

1.15

GLOB

g/L

25-45

46

ALB/GLOB

  

0.6

BUN/CRE

  

19

Interpretation:There was a slight increase in globulin, no obvious abnormalities in other biochemical indicators, no obvious specificity and sensitivity, suggesting the existence of inflammatory diseases in the body
The result of the CRP testing

Project

Result

Reference Range

CRP

122.0mg/L

<10mg/L

Interpretation: The increased of CRP significantly, indicating the existence of serious acute inflammation or tissue cell damage.
Blood agglutination test

Project

Result

Reference Range

APTT

22

15-43

PT

10.2

5-16

Microscope of the blood smear
The diagnosis and treatment of Canine Babesiosis

Interpretation:Multiple nucleated red cells were seen at high field.Red blood cells of different sizes, a large number of spherical red blood cells, a small number of oral red blood cells. The presence of “ring” like contents in multiple red blood cells was observed.

Project

Unit

Reference Range

Result

pH

7.25-7.400

7.384

pCO2

mmHg

33.0-51.0

31

Hct

%

24-40

12

Na+

Mmol/L

139-150

140

K+

Mmol/L

2.9-4.2

3.4

Cl-

Mmol/L

106-127

113

AnGap

Mmol/L

10-27

16

The PCR result of infectious examination

Project

Result

Babesia gibsoni

(+)

Babesia canis

(-)

HGA

(-)

Ehrlichia canis

(-)

Diagnosis

Canine Babesia gibsoni
The diagnosis methods in Canine Babesia gibsoni usually used in clinical are consist of the physical examination findings history, laboratory examination such as complete blood count, cytology. Biochemistryprofile,urinalysis,polymerase chain reaction(PCR)assays.And we will also take serology and radiography examinations to have a full understanding of the patients.In general speaking,the evidence of anemian,  the”ring-like”performance in the red blood cell,the highly elevate of the CRP and hyperglobulinemia are indicated to the babesia infection .
Although it is relatively easy to diagnose babesia under the microscope performance with “ring” like which can be directly seen from blood smear, for different species and strains, the pathogen may not be detected in the first time. Therefore, more clinical auxiliary examinations, such as urine detection and abdominal ultrasound examination, are required. On the one hand, more detailed of the pathogen conditions can be screened to prevent missed diagnosis happening. Further more, it could be found to make us suspect babesiosis early.

Treatment

1.Blood transfusions 2mL/kg ivgtt
Relieve tissue hypoxia through blood transfusion: Blood type detection and cross-matching test were conducted actively in donor dogs. The red blood cell volume of 2ml/kg·BW was increased by 1%, and the dose of whole blood needed to be input was calculated.The elevation of HCT is limited because the affected dog is too heavy to get more whole blood for infusion
2.Gastroprotectants of omeprazole:1mg/k’g s.c q24hrs
3.Diminazene aceturate :3.5mg/kg i.m
4.LRS + 0.9% NaCl solution(1:1) 60mL/kg ivgtt
5.Clopidogrel 2mg/kg p.o q24hrs

The principle therapy is to manage to eliminate the pathogen as possible and maintain body function.
For the later stage of treatment and the period of acute infection, it is still recommended to carry out regular CBC and PCR examination, because any treatment can not completely eliminate the insect body, and regular deworming is needed to prevent secondary infection.Although the mechanism of action of drugs on babesiosis is largely unknown or not studied in detail, atovaquone and azithromycin are more recommended for babesiosis in dogs with relatively less side effects, but it has been suggested by veterinarians that the recurrence rate of treatment with this regimen is higher than treatment with triazmidine alone. If triazamidine is used alone for treatment, caution should be exercised with repeated administration because triazamidine has a narrow safety range, many side effects, and increased neurological and parasympathetic toxicity at cumulative doses of more than 7mg/kg, and repeated administration within 6 weeks is not recommended.For the treatment of babesia gibsoni, a new drug regimen has been proposed in recent years: Clindamycin combined with triazamidine and midoca. The specific mechanism of action is not completely clear, and there are few clinical trials, which need further study and research.Severe hemolytic anemia may require blood transfusion. The use of glucocorticoids is controversial because it may aggravate parasitic diseases. Assess and correct dehydration and acidosis. Start special treatment for any co-morbid disease (e.g., Eliktic disease, leishmaniasis, hepatic zoonosis). And we should not ignore the treatment of serious complications such as acute renal failure,pancreatitis,DIC.
The prognosis of this case is good,and recovery on day 7.In the report,the prognosis depends on the strain of infection and the immune capacity of the patient. Individuals with splenectomy usually have a poor prognosis.

The examination during the therapy
Complete Blood Count (CBC) examination after therapy

Project

DAY 1

DAY 2

Reference Range

WBC

11.8

14.7

6.0~17.0×103/μL

RBC

1.67

3.41

5.5~10×106/μL

HGB

3.2

6.6

12.0~18.0g/dL

HCT

10.7

22.0

37~55%

MCV

64.1

64.5

60~77fL

MCH

19.2

19.4

19~24.5pg

MCHC

29.9

30.0

30~37g/dL

PLT

148

304

200~500

LYM%

25.4

12.4

12~30%

OTHR%

68.8

77.3

60~86%

EO%

6.0

10.3

2~10%

LYM

3.0

1.8

1.5-7

OTHR

8.1

11.4

2.5-12.5

EO

0.7

1.5

0-1.5

Conclusion

Definition and Etiology
Babesiosis is caused by hematoprotozoa which is inside the red blood cells. One to five species of babesia can be divided into large and small. Both dogs and cats can be infected with both viruses, although cats are rarer than dogs. Babesia is the second most common mammalian blood parasite in the world.Transmission can be mainly through tick bites, blood contamination (e.g. from a blood donor, fighting), or transplacenta. Once the host is infected, the incubation period is 7-21 days. The tick species associated with transmission are ridgehead, ixodes, dermis, haemaphysalis and hyaluronoma ticks. The most common vector in the United States is the haemaphysalis.
The babesia inside the erythrocyte is ingested by a vector, usually ticks of the ixodidae family, from the blood of an infected host. Infected red blood cells are usually digested and destroyed in the tick’s midgut. A few surviving cells turn into gametes, followed by zygotic fusion. Then they invade the midgut epithelium. The fertilized egg undergoes meiosis, transforms into a motile oocyte, and passes through the carrier’s blood sac. Babesia reproduce asexually, which causes sporospores to spread to all organ systems within the carrier, where they remain for life. Interestingly, ticks infected with babesia tend to mature less, although some ticks are developing a tolerance to the protozoa. After spreading to different organ systems, macrobabesia can be transprogenically transmitted to infect future carrier offspring. The salivary glands are the most critical of the organs into which the sporospores enter, as they become the source of future infections. Within the salivary glands Babesia undergoes a final stage of replication to produce spores. These spores enter the host through saliva during the vector’s bloodsucking on the host. The infection process may require vector feeding for 2-3 days. Sporozoites enter the red blood cells of the host and multiply by binary fusion. The reproduction and reproduction of babesia in the blood leads to the clinical symptoms of the disease. These signs are mainly associated with hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Pathogenicity varies from strain to strain. Infection may be more severe and may occur clinically in patients with prior splenectomy or splenectomy.
Some infections are subclinical. When clinical disorders occur, there are usually two forms, whose name is hemolytic anemia (most common) and multiple organ dysfunction (rare). The most severe clinical form is usually caused by Echinococcus Canis. Occasionally, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) may occur with hemolytic and vascular damage, followed by platelet destruction and clotting factor depletion.

Preventive Measures
For many cases,the most important thing is to prevent the disease such as deworming on time especially for the situation that walking dogs outdoors,instead of treating.Topical and environmental acaricide prophylactics can be used to minimize exposure to tick vectors. Examples include: 1) Afozoolana (Nexguard) was shown in a small study to prevent transmission and clinical development of canine babesiosis for 28 days after a single treatment. 2) In two small studies, lotillaner (Credilio) provided 100% protection against B. Canis infection during experimental tick infection. 3) In another small study, Babesia Canis infection is prevented when Simparica was administered 21 or 28 days prior to tick exposure. 4) Oral and oral fluramide (Bravecto) can also prevent transmission of B. Canis from infected ticks.) Combination products containing fipronil and permethrin (Frontline) are also valid.
Carefully assess pets after exposure and remove ticks promptly. Testing blood donors is necessary before using them. Vaccines using soluble parasite antigen (SPA) of different species of babesia have been used in the past, but with varying efficacy, probably due to the genetic diversity of the parasite. A new form of this vaccine is being studied, which utilizes SPA’svaccine-challenged supernatant. This approach was moderately successful in a small study of dogs.

A case of immune thrombocytopenia of canine

Abstract

Primary immune thrombocytopenia (IMT) is a cause of severe thrombocytopenia in dogs which involves the destruction of platelets by type II hypersensitivity (antibody-dependent cytotoxicity), a mechanism similar to that previously described in immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. If the truly auto-antibodies bind to the structural components of the platelet membrane, thrombocytopenia is inherently autoimmune in the absence of the underlying disease, The disease is primary immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (IMTP) or autoimmune thrombocytopenia (AITP). AIHA or AITP may occur simultaneously (Evans syndrome) or as part of the multi-system autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Alternatively, antibodies may bind to the surface of platelets secondary to infection or administration, as described in IMHA. Immunosuppressive corticosteroids are often used to treat ITP, but treatment failure may occur. Immunomodulatory and non-corticosteroid immunosuppressive drugs may improve the outcome of treatment, either alone or in combination with corticosteroids. In this case, thrombocytopenia is considered primary.The purpose of this article was to introduce the current diagnostic evidence and the relating to the treatment of ITP in dogs with immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive regimens.

Key words: immune thrombocytopenia,canine.

Basic information

Name:XIAO GUI
Breed:Poodle dog
Sex:Female (not-castrated)
Age:4 years and 5 months old
Body weight:2.5kg
History:dietary habit with meat and mankind food for a long tern
Upon initial presentation,the dog started to appear lethargic and weak.Owner found it vomit and become worse recently.The day before the examination,XIAO GUI had no appetite at all,and was found ecchymoses in the skin.So took her to the hospital.Vaccinate history is completed.No deworming in this year.

Physical examination

Body weight 2.5kg,temperature 38.7℃,respiratory rate was 32/min,heart rate:102 beats/min、mouth mucosa was pale,capillary refill time(CRT)<2s,body condition score(BCS)was 3/9. The patient was presented with depression.dry coat and nose.Abdominal palpation was found nervous and increased of abdomen. There were mild dental calculus and gingivitis in oral examination.Multiple areas of ecchymoses were found on the skin of back and ventral skin. Obvious dehydration was not found.

Laboratory examination
Complete Blood Count (CBC) examination for Day 1

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Result

Reference Range

RBC

6.29

5.65-8.87

HCT

43.8

37.3-61.7

HGB

14.9

13.1-20.5

MCV

69.6

61.6-73.5

MCH

23.7

21.2-25.9

MCHC

34

32-37.9

RDW

16.5

13.6-21.7

RETIC

78.6

10-110

WBC

8.75

5.05-16.76

NEU

6.5

2.95-11.64

LYM

1.33

1.05-5.10

MONO

0.82

0.16-1.12

EOS

0.1

0.6-1.23

BASO

0

0-0.1

PLT

0

148-484

MPV

10.9

8.7-13.2

PCT

0

0.14-0.46

 The result of the biochemistry CHEM15 for Day 1

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Result

Reference Range

GLU

5.04

4.11-7.95

CREA

63

44-159

BUN

5.4

2.5-9.6

BUN/CREA

21

 

PHOS

1.67

0.81-2.2

CA

2.18

1.98-3

TP

60

52-82

ALB

30

23-40

GLOB

30

25-45

ALB/GLOB

1

 

ALT

31

10-125

ALKP

11

23-212

GGT

0

0-11

TBIL

0

0-15

CHOL

3.56

2.84-8.26

Blood agglutination test

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Result

Reference Range

APTT

28

15-43

PT

9.1

5-16

Microscope of the blood smear
A case of immune thrombocytopenia of canine
Imageological examination of Ultrasonic examination
A case of immune thrombocytopenia of canine
The ultrasonic image of spleen,we can see a 1.22cm x 2.00 cm mass in the spleen,there was a possibility of tumor which need further examination
A case of immune thrombocytopenia of canine
The ultrasonic image of the liver.We can see performance of cholestasis in the gall bladder,there was a possibility of the early stage of cystic mucocele.

Imageological examination of radiography test
A case of immune thrombocytopenia of canine
The lateral radiography image of the thorax and abdomen,there is no obvious abnormal finding.

Diagnosis

Immune-Mediated Thrombocytopenia
The diagnosis methods in immune-mediated thrombocytopenia usually used in clinical are consist of the physical examination findings or history,laboratory examination such as complete blood count,cytology.And we will also take biochemistry and radiography examinations to have a full understanding of the patients.Platelet tests,anti-platelet antibody test,bone marrow evaluation,coagulation tests,biomarker assays can have a better indicated to detect it but costing time and expensive in reality.Heart worm test is necessary in some area especially the deworming dogs.
Clinical signs of hemorrhage are the first commonly historical and physical abnormal findings in IMT.Besides,the patient may be presented with vomit,hematochezia,epistaxis,fever,paralysis,seizures and some neurologic signs.In the CBC report,we can find that there is a low platelet count and we can not find the platelet under the microscope. The patient of IME are found significantly lower of platelet counts compared with other causes of thrombocytopenia.

Treatment

1.Doxycycline:5mg/k’g po q24hs
2.Gastroprotectants of omeprazole: 1mg/k’g s.c q24hs
3.Immunosuppressive therapy of prednisolone: 1mg/kg po q12hrs

The principle therapy is to manage hemorrhage and maintain a platelet count,treating the inciting cause when possible.Specific therapy is giving immunosuppressive agents to reduce the destruction of antibody-coated platelets by the splenic macrophages.Supportive therapy is giving gastrointestinal protection drugs to prevent the hemorrhage of digestive tract.For the anemic patients,it may require a blood transfusion.Doxycycline is usually used in the prior to infectious disease screening results.The process were mentioned below,and the situation and the symptoms of the patient become better during the treatment.

The examination during the therapy
Complete Blood Count (CBC) examination for Day 2

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Result

Reference Range

RBC

4.29

5.65-8.87

HCT

29.3

37.3-61.7

HGB

10.4

13.1-20.5

MCV

68.3

61.6-73.5

MCH

24.2

21.2-25.9

MCHC

35.5

32-37.9

RDW

15.1

13.6-21.7

RETIC

12.4

10-110

WBC

6.88

5.05-16.76

NEU

4.65

2.95-11.64

LYM

0.95

1.05-5.10

MONO

1.19

0.16-1.12

EOS

0.05

0.6-1.23

BASO

0.04

0-0.1

PLT

74

148-484

MPV

20.2

8.7-13.2

PCT

0.15

0.14-0.46

Complete Blood Count (CBC) examination for Day 5

Project

Result

Reference Range

RBC

4.24

5.65-8.87

HCT

29

37.3-61.7

HGB

10.1

13.1-20.5

MCV

68.4

61.6-73.5

MCH

23.8

21.2-25.9

MCHC

34.8

32-37.9

RDW

17.1

13.6-21.7

RETIC

96.2

10-110

WBC

8.73

5.05-16.76

NEU

5.19

2.95-11.64

LYM

1.62

1.05-5.10

MONO

1.91

0.16-1.12

EOS

0.01

0.6-1.23

BASO

0

0-0.1

PLT

459

148-484

MPV

17

8.7-13.2

PCT

0.78

0.14-0.46

Complete Blood Count (CBC) examination for Day 10

Project

Result

Reference Range

RBC

4.93

5.65-8.87

HCT

33.8

37.3-61.7

HGB

11.1

13.1-20.5

MCV

68.6

61.6-73.5

MCH

22.5

21.2-25.9

MCHC

32.8

32-37.9

RDW

20.3

13.6-21.7

RETIC

285.0

10-110

WBC

13.84

5.05-16.76

NEU

9.62

2.95-11.64

LYM

2.34

1.05-5.10

MONO

1.74

0.16-1.12

EOS

0.08

0.6-1.23

BASO

0.06

0-0.1

PLT

368

148-484

MPV

15.6

8.7-13.2

PCT

0.57

0.14-0.46

Conclusion

Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (IMT) refers to immune-mediated platelet destruction. Thrombocytopenia occurs when platelet destruction exceeds the number of platelets produced by megakaryocytes in the bone marrow.IMT is a primary or secondary disease. Primary IMT has no identifiable underlying cause of platelet destruction. Primary forms are more common in dogs than cats, although neither form is common in these species. In a study of 871 dogs with thrombocytopenia, IMT accounted for only 49 cases (5.6%). There are many potential causes of secondary IMT, These include medication, leptospirosis, Ehrlichiosis, New Ricker’s disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, leishmaniasis, Babesiosis, systemic mycosis, Bartontonia, hepatic zoonosis, canine empidemic virus, canine infectious hepatitis, feline infectious peritonitis, feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus, feline panleukopenia, bacterial infection, cystitis , pyelonephritis, primary bone marrow diseases, tumors (such as lymphoma), systemic lupus erythematosus, haemophilus mycoplasma, anaplasmosis, heartworm disease, bee poisoning, blood transfusion reactions, and other immune-mediated diseases (such as IMHA) .Note that recent vaccinations have been cited as a potential cause of IMT, but the relationship has not been fully established. In a study of 44 dogs with IMT, there was no significant difference in prevalence between the recently vaccinated patients and the control group. More research may be needed to better prove or disprove the association.

Pathophysiology
The pathogenesis of dogs and cats are not well understood. Much of what known is  inferred from a person’s IMT. The typical characteristic of IMT is the increasing of platelet autoantibodies. The destruction of platelets by MPS increased. Impaired production of megakaryocytes and platelets.The life of Platelet expectancy reduced. IMT is complex which involves B – and T-cell-mediated platelet destruction.

First,the platelet autoantibodies (i.e. major of IgG) bind to the surface of the platelet, causing MPS to destroy healthy platelets. This process is mediated by platelet coating by macrophage Fc receptor binding antibodies. T cells also contribute to platelet destruction, primarily Th1 and Th17 immune responses. The immune regulation that maintains self-tolerance (such as T and B regulatory cells) is also usually abnormal, leading to the persistence of anti-platelet immune responses.

The circulating platelet life of IMT patients is usually less than 1 day. The spleen is the main site of immune-mediated platelet destruction, with a destruction rates up to ten times that normal, senescent platelet consumption. Because antibody-bound platelets are cleared by MPS and not by the liver, liver TPO release is not triggered, thus slowing the rate of platelet reproduction.

Bone marrow accelerates platelet destruction by increasing the number of megakaryocytes. Thrombosis can increase to five times the normal rate. In IMT patients, however, platelet autoantibodies (in addition to unreleased TPO) cross-react with megakaryocytes, and thrombogenesis is often further weakened. Patients with IMT may develop megakaryocyte thrombocytopenia (i.e. megakaryocyte hypoplasia) secondary to immune-mediated destruction of megakaryocytes, although this is uncommon.

It is also worth noting that in canine patients with IMT, circulating autoantibodies may cause platelet dysfunction (i.e., thromboembolism) in addition to destroying platelets. However, studies have shown that surviving circulating platelets often have normal or enhanced ability to stop bleeding, possibly due to the large number of megaloplatelets (i.e., large young platelets). It is not known if these problems also apply to cats with IMT.

Prevalence and Signalment
Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia accounts for about 5-15% of canine thrombocytopenia cases. In a study of 61 thrombocytopenic dogs, 57% were diagnosed with primary IMT and 28% with secondary IMT (i.e. 9.8% lymphatic/medullary tumor, 9.8% infection, 5% liver disease, and 3% drug exposure). The sex tendency of IMT is at least twice as common in female as in male. Representative breeds include cocker spaniel, miniature poodle, toy poodle and Old English Shepherd. Genetic factors, combined with etiological triggers (e.g., environment, infection), have been theorized as potentially susceptible varieties, but more research is needed. Middle-aged dogs are most affected.

Clinical Signs
Some patients are asymptomatic. Most clinical symptoms occur with an increased tendency to bleed. Possible clinical symptoms include lethargy, anorexia, fever, weakness, petechiae, ecchymosis, pale mucous membranes, bleeding gums, blackness, hematemesis, blood in the stool, nosebleed, hematuria, hyphema, sclera or iris bleeding, retinal bleeding, blindness, frontal signs, altered mental status, epilepsy, lymphadenopathy, enlargement of the liver, enlargement of the spleen, lameness, cough, dyspnea, and hematoma formation.

Monitoring and prognosis
Reported that the platelet count in CBC should be monitored daily until platelets exceeded 50,000/µL. Then followed by weekly monitoring until platelet counts normalized. Within 7-10 days of starting glucocorticoids, the platelet count usually increases to 50-100,000 /µL. Immunosuppressive therapy can be tapered over 4-6 months once platelet counts return to normal. According to the general guideline,the standard is to reduce the dose by 20-25% every 2-3 weeks once the platelets are confirmed to be stable. Platelet counts were monitored every 1-2 weeks during the drug reduction period. One study reported that 16 primary IMT dogs received a median dose of prednisolone of 2.4 mg/kg/ day in remission and 0.9 mg/kg/ day in relapse. Prednisolone reduction rates were significantly higher in patients with acute recurrence (i.e., remission <60 days) compared to patients with delayed recurrence or no recurrence.If IMT is treated quickly and appropriately, the prognosis is usually good. Reported survival rates range from 70-90%. Relapse is possible (i.e. 9-58%), and some patients require long-term maintenance therapy. IMT can lead to death and is usually secondary to bleeding. Secondary infections caused by immunosuppression are also a concern. In a study of 73 dogs with primary IMT, 61/73 survived to discharge. The presence of melanoemia or elevated BUN on admission was associated with reduced survival. Another study of 30 dogs reported that 29/30 dogs survived at least 14 days after the onset of symptoms, with 27 dogs surviving 15-1684 days after the onset of symptoms (median 220 days). Another study of 46 dogs with primary IMT reported a survival to discharge rate of 73 percent, with an average hospital stay of 5.1 days. Of those who survived, 39 percent experienced a relapse. Treatment options include corticosteroids or glucocorticoids in combination with other drugs (e.g. Azathioprine, cyclosporine, vincristine). There is no significant difference between protocol and survival. Another study reported that patients with megakaryocyte thrombocytopenia had more severe anemia.The increased of clinical symptoms of bleeding.The number of transfusions required increased compared to dogs with primary peripheral IMT. In this study, 29 out of 34 primary IMTs survived to discharge, but only 1 out of 7 megakaryocytocytopenia survived to discharge.

The diagnosis and treatment of a canine infectious respiratory disease

Abstract

Canine infectious respiratory disease is called CIRD for short, which is a highly contagious disease in China,especially in the poor environment of the dogs houses and the dogs hospice. There are a number of dogs suffer from a coughing and recover quickly however,a bronchopneumonia can develop mild to severe. And CIRD is well-known considered to be a multi-factorial disease.In this case,patient perform coughing and sneezing,along with purulent secretion. As far as I am concerned,this disease is easily to be confused with the bacterial infection of respiratory for the pet owners,and it could be dangerous to the dogs especially of the young ages and the weakness. So it is important to know how to diagnose and therapy.
Key words: CIRD, diagnose, treatment, infectious.

1. Basic information

Name: LA LA
Breed: Labrador retriever dog
Sex: Female (no-castrated)
Age: 2 month old
Body weight: 5.2kg
History: no vaccination and deworming

2. Before therapy

The patient was bought from the dogs house 7 days before on Tiktok ,feeding in group in the dog house and performed normal at that time.Recently the owner found it coughing and sneezing but do nothing because of considering the changing of the environment.But 1 day before the symptoms of patient became worse and presented depressing and no appetite of food and water.According to the seller,there was a vaccination but only the first needle and no deworming history,feeding with young dogs food,and the other dogs had become similar symptoms these days.A stress, overcrowding, and increasing the length of stay in a shelter/kennel environment also helps the transmission of diseases.

3. Physical examination

This case was presented with a coughing and sneezing with yellow,purulent charge. The oral mucous membranes was pink and pale.Basic physiological of heart rate was 132 beats per mini,respiratory rate was 30 per min,temperature was 39.7℃,capillary refill time(crt)was normal(<1s).Cardiophony was no obvious abnormal while there was not clear sound in the auscultation of the chest.Bilateral ears,eyes were cleaned,and the purulent secretion was found in the nose.The surface of the skin was soft and a little dry with the membranes of the palmulas.Lymph gland palpation abnormal was not found except a mild swelling of the cervical lymph node.Inducing cough reflex testing was positive.No abnormal was found in the abdominal palpation and the bone palpation.

4. laboratory examination

4.1 Complete Blood Count(CBC)examination
Table 1 The result of the CBC examination

Project

Result

Reference Range

WBC

24.5

6-17×109/L

RBC

4.13

5.5-8.5×1012/L

HGB

9.2

8-15g/L

HCT

26.3

37-55%

MCV

63.7

39-55fL

MCH

22.3

12.5-17.5pg

MCHC

35

30-36g/L

PLT

284

300-800×109/L

LYM%

20.2

20-55%

OTHR%

82.7

60-77%

EO%

0.4

2-12%

LYM

1.6

1.5-4.8×109/L

OTHR

23.4

3-11.5×109/L

EOS

0.1

0.1-1.25×109/L

RDW

13

13-17%

PCT

0.18

0-2.9%

MPV

4.8

12-17fL

PDW

18.2

0-50%

4.2 The result of the CRP examination

Project

Result

Reference Range

CRP

10

<20mg/L

Complete Blood Count(CBC)examination: CBC examination showed a mild anemia in patient, but it may be a normal performance in the young dogs.The HCT,HGB and MCV was normal.In the part of white blood count index,we can see the rise of the white blood cells,as well as a right shift of the white blood cell nucleus in the microscope.The numbers of the lym cells are normal in the testing,is was weird in the virus infection patient and had a possibility that consumable with the causative agent.So,as i am concerned that it may suggesting the possible existence of infection and inflammation in this report.Thrombocytopenia may be associated with neutrophilia or the operation in blood collecting.
CRP examination: The result of the CRP was normal,this situation was not inconsistent with the CBC result which infer inflammatory.We know that the CRP is the fist inflammation index of dog,is the evidence of the acute inflammatory factor,can elevate highly in the acute injury and bacterial infection disease,so the normal number may not replace there was no inflammation in the body,it may be explained that the patient was in a chronic infection period.The result should analysis with the CBC and a following symptoms.

4.3The result of the 3 common infectious virus disease examination

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result

Reference Range

Cdv

0.22

<1 Coi

Cpv

0.32

<1 Coi

Ccv

9.51

<1 Coi

 

The result of antigen texting:Feces and secretion sample were collected to take a exam of the CDV,CPV and CCV antigen texting.We should know that this examination was convenient in the clinical but less accurate than PCR testing.So if the treatment response wasn’t accord with the doctor’s expecting,PCR may be taken for a better diagnosis.We can see that the CPV is positive in the report.

4.3 X-ray examination
The diagnosis and treatment of a canine infectious respiratory disease

Picture 1 Increased pulmonary markings in dog which infer the pneumonia – VD radiography
The diagnosis and treatment of a canine infectious respiratory disease
Picture 2 Increased pulmonary markings in the radiography in the chest – right lateral radiography

5. Diagnosis

Canine corona virus infection,Canine infectious respiratory disease

6.Treatment

(1)Prescription
①Lactated Ringer + 0.9% NaCl 1:1 (40mL/kg *24h)+ 1mL Vc, ivggt
②Cob 0.1mL, s.c
③IFN-w 250IU, s.c
④Cefotaxime sodium 250mg, s.c
⑤Doxorubicin 50mg, p.o
⑥Nebulizer therapy with 0.9% NaCl

The therapy continued for 3 day and in 4 day after the treatment,the symptoms of the patient became better,and it started to eat and drink.So stop giving liquid therapy and lessen the needle drugs.Only giving IFN and doxorubicin.Nebulizer therapy for every two days.After 7 days of the treatment,the symptoms of coughing and sneezing were less and less and rechecked the radiography of lung.We can see the abnormal area of the radiography was improved.Then the owner tooe it back home to nurse and kept on treatment of oral doxorubicin for 7days,during the days,adequate ventilation should be sure to helps reduce the spread of CIRD. The patient was recovery at last.

Picture 3 decreased pulmonary markings in dog compared with picture 1 – VD radiography
The diagnosis and treatment of a canine infectious respiratory disease

Picture 4 decreased pulmonary markings in the radiography in the chest – right lateral radiography

7. Conclusion

    Introduction:Canine infectious respiratory disease was describes as an acute infection primarily impacting the upper respiratory tract which is one of the most usual causes we have seen in the respiratory disease of dogs especially in the young ages.There are a several virus and bacteria are associal with canine infectious respiratory disease.In this case,the cause of the CIRD was diagnosed as canine respiratory coronavirus.There are a possibility that more than one viral may be affected the dogs such as canine distemper virus,canine parainfluenza virus,canine adeno virus type 2,canine influenza virus,canine herpes virus, canine pneumovirus amd canine reovirus.The other type of pathogens which is also common involved in dogs is the bacterial pathogens such as Bordetella bronchiseptica,Streptococcus equi subsp andMycoplasma spp.So it is important to differentiate diagnosis by a complete examination instead of giving drug empirically.And we may note that the healthy dogs can also harbor canine infectious respiratory disease pathogens in the clinically.Those dogs in group or not giving vaccination are more easily exposed to the pathogens.Canine infectious respiratory disease is transmitted by oral and nasal contact with aerosol form the respiratory secretions.The contaminated food and environment can also affect the patients.The incubation period is 2-3days usually and in some cases it may be up to 10 days which is depending on the virulence of the pathogen.
      The methods of diagnosis:In this case,we made a presumptive diagnosis of canine infectious respiratory disease according to the based clinical sings,life history and the physical examination.And taking a series of diagnostic examination in patients to confirm the result to avoid the risk that the patient did not respond to the supportive therapy and have a evidence to show to the pet owners.In some case,we can usually find the symptoms such as fever,lethargy,anorexia,coughing,snezzing,dehypration,edema conjunctiva,gagging,nasal and ocular discharge,retching,vomiting,tachypnea,trachea palpation painful,weakness and weight loss by doing physical examination.We have mentioned that several pathogens are associated with canine infectious respiratory disease,so we can not use the clinical signs alone to diagnose.
Complete Blood count:The changes of CBC testing are nonspecific in many times,but it can show us the situation in the body. We can see a stress leukogram or infection leukogram,with neutrophillia,lymphopenia and eoxinopenia in the testing usually.If the patient occur pneumonia,a left shift or marked leukocytosis can be found and it is a complicating factor in the disease.
Thoracic Radiography:Thoracic radiography examination are usually used in the patients of respiratory symptoms.Although it is unremarkable in some patients with uncomplicated canine infectious respiratory disease,this examination has a advantage of convenience and perceptual intuition.
ELISA of the antigen testing: antigen testings are one of the most commonly used tests and convenience methods for the viral detection in China.We can get the result in 30 minute and make a diagnosis quickly.But the False-negative and false-positive can occur with many reasons like improper sample collection and the quality of the viral testing kit.
Ploymerase Chain Reaction(PCR)assay:PCR assays are the one of the most commonly used tests methods especially in central hospital,which are a accurate and reliable methods.But it has some disadvantages like too long to get the result and it can be impacted by the improper sample collection.

    What is the treatment for CRID ? There are no specific anti-viral therapy for canine infectious respiratory disease if the affected pathogen is CcV.The principle of the treatment consists of supportive therapy according to the clinical sings to maintain the resistance to the infection .Antibiotic drugs are suggested to be used if there are sings and symptoms of secondary bacterial infection.Liquid therapy may be needed in the weakness dogs which do not eat and drink.Nebulizer therapy is a good choice to relieve the patients from injury of respiratory by the acute coughing.In most cases of CIRD whose signs are typically mild,antibiotic therapy may not be required in most times because they are self-limiting and can resolve spontaneously within 10 days.Hence,if the disease is due to viral infections,and the patients present secondary bacterial infection such as fever,lethargy,loss of appetite,along with a purulent nasal or ocular discharge, antibiotics are used although they are ineffective for the underlying cause.Doxorubicin is considered to be a good drug for a first choice to use because of its efficacy to against the common pathogens like Mycoplasma spp. And B.bronchiseptica,and has a good effect in respiratory tract.If lungs are involved in the infection, other broad-spectrum antibiotics like cefotaxime sodium may be needed.In ideally situation,we should select antibiotic drugs by the bacterial culture, but it is not reality in clinical therapy of sever patient.In some reports,the supportive therapy of prednisone may be considered as an anti-inflammatory drug to use to help relieve coughing.However,if the the level of the glucocorticoids are inhibited, there is a risk of infection. Besides,anti-tussives drugs like hydrocodone ,butorphanol and codeine may be used to reduce the frequency and intensity of coughing, however,coughing is also a protecting mechanism to increase clearance of respiratory pathogens for the patients,the suppressants of coughing can reduce this effects.So in this case, the anti-tussive s drugs should not be used in the patient because of the secondary bacterial infections.On the other hand,nebulization therapy is a good choice for solving the problem of excessive respiratory secretions.6-10mL 0.9% sterile NaCl liquid are beneficial.And the patient is suggested to be nebulized over 20 minutes q 12-24hrs.
Monitoring and Prognosis: In clinical ,most patients which is diagnosis as CIRD with mild symptoms can be treated and monitored as out patients and no need to stay in the hospital. Those that develop complicating factors such as this case which is pneumonia are require more intense monitoring and therapy.Vaccination is key to prevent the disease of infectious respiratory and can relief the symptoms although the vaccinated dogs still can be infected.In my experience,the prognosis is good in this king of patients and the clinical sings and symptoms are typically mild and self-limiting.But in the dogs which are not vaccinated,young ages or immunity suppressive,are at a higher risk for more severe symptoms and death rate. In this case,the therapy continues 14 day, and the symptoms are controlled.

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Are you looking for the best dog pee pads over the internet? Try LOOBANI washable dog pee pads. The pads have a soft polyester surface that comforts your dog. The underside has non-slippery rubber points that keep the pads in place even on woody or slick floors. Moreover, the pads are tear resistant.
Like many other pads, these pads don’t leave paw marks on the surface. Moreover, have excellent absorption capacity and can hold up to ten cups of liquid. So, if your pup is sick or nature calls it frequently, LOOBANI dog pee pads, washable, are the best choice.
The edges of the pee pads are hemmed and have three layers of protection. It’s the best pee pad that doesn’t leak. So say no to leakage! No worries about cleaning the floor multiple times a day. Besides, the pad has a large size which gives your dog or puppies enough space to play. You can place it on the floor and under your puppy pen. They not only keep your house clean but also give an aesthetic look.
Moreover, two units make it easy to replace one if it needs washing. And yeh! The good news is that the pads are safe for machine wash. Another plus point of these pads is that you can use them for multiple purposes. If you must travel with your canine companion, use it as a seat protector. If your pup is a couch potato, you can keep your sofa safe by spreading the pads over it. If its playtime, spread it over the play area to protect it from the pet’s pee. Undoubtedly, LOOBANI gives you the best washable dog pee pads.

Pricing & Tech Specs

  • Price: $69.99 (2 packs)

  • Color: Gray and Green

  • Size: 72″ X 72″/ 65″ X 48″ (available in other sizes too)

Pros

  • Eco-friendly
  • Budget-friendly
  • Leak-proof
  • Can be used for multiple purposes

Cons

  • Washing a large-sized reusable puppy pad requires a washing machine.
8 Best Washable Dog Pee Pads in 2022
  • A Diff-Fur-Ent Kind Of Dog Pad

  • Tons Of Multi-Use Pawsibilities 

  • 100% Washable and Reusable 

  • Ultra-Absorbent and non-slip 

  • Includes Free Puppy Training Ebook 

If you have a puppy, an adult canine, or a senior or sick dog who can’t travel much, decent bone-imprinted washable doggie pee pads from the Proper Pet store are for you. They come in different sizes ranging from small to extra-large. You can get them in brown, orange, and gray shades. These reusable puppy pee pads come in a pack of two so that you can rotate them when required.
These puppy pee pads are comfortable. Place them anywhere in your house, and they won’t slip over the floor. Your doggie will have a perfect time on the pads. These ultra-absorbent pads are easy to wash and save you money from buying disposable ones recurrently. One of the best things about the Proper Pet washable pee pads is that you can wash them over 200 times.

The anti-leak Proper Pet reusable pee pads keep your floor protected. You can also use them as a cover for a car seat when enjoying vacations with your furry. In addition, place them under your pet’s pen, in the crate, or on your bed. They are multi-use pads that make your money worth it. Not only for a pee, but they are also the best potty pads for dogs.
Moreover, the odor lock feature makes them even more demanding. So, get these necessary puppy pads (washable) from online or brick-and-mortar stores and say goodbye to your pet’s old stinky pee pads. According to customers, they are the best indoor canine companions’ toilets.

Pricing & Tech Specs

  • Price: $18.98 – $ 29.98
  • Color: Gray, brown, and orange
  • Size: small, medium, large, extra large

Pros

  • Durable
  • Easy to clean
  • Excellent absorbance

Cons

  • A bit difficult to dry
Pet Cooling Mat, Keep Cool in Summe, Perfect Indoors, Outdoors or in The Car
  • High-Tech Fiber 

  • Elaborate Design

  • Safety & Easy Clean

  • Portable & Multiple Use

  • Best Cooling Mat

Having a pet dog or a puppy who does accidents in the house is quite common. HENGYI’s High Absorbent reusable accident pads are a great help in keeping the house clean. These pads do their work excellently due to their four-layered design. The first layer is polyester and is skin-friendly, soft, and highly comfortable for dogs of all ages.
The second layer is cotton. It has a strong liquid-absorbing potential. The thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) film is breathable and waterproof. And the last layer is wear-resistant and has small non-slip silica gel dots to keep the washable puppy pee pads in place.
The cozy pad is environmentally friendly and light on the wallet as well. You can use it as a food mat to prevent mess on the floor. It serves other functions too. For instance, if you take your furry companion on a drive and fear that he may pee or poop in the car, these pads will serve as seat protectors. They are also ideal crates or puppy pen mats.
One of the good things about these pee pads is that you can design them according to your choice. You can choose the color and pattern on the reusable puppy pads. When they get dirty, you can easily wash them in the machine. It saves you time and energy. It would be best if you tried these dog pee mats.

Pricing & Tech Specs

  • Price:$7.99 – $46.86
  • Dimension: ‎9.84 x 3.94 x 2.36 inches
  • Weight: 10 lbs.
  • Material: Plastic

Pros

  • Both for indoor and outdoor use
  • Give a decent look at your house
  • Comfortable

Cons

  • Can’t withstand high temperature
CoolShields Washable Puppy/ Dog Pee-Pad
  • Perfect for pee-trained puppies, adult dogs and incontinent senior dogs. 

  • Adopt human-grade fabrics that have passed OEKO-TEX safety fabric certification to provide the highest level of protection for your small family members.

  • The bottom layer is 100% waterproof.

  • Thick fabric, warm and non-slip.

  • Machine washable, reusable, easy to dry.

A perfect solution to the winter cold for your senior dog, little pups, and pregnant furry friends! CoolShields’ reusable puppy pee pads are the best puppy pads. The pad has a soft waterproof surface that gives warmth to your pets in chilled winters. It quickly absorbs the liquid leaving your canines completely dry. It is a no-puddle pad that doesn’t make your pet uncomfortable.

These pads from CoolShieds are non-slip and anti-tear. So, no matter how playful your pet is, the pad won’t tear. Moreover, you can use them in several ways, such as furniture protection, car seat protection, on beds, floors, under playpens, and where not. Their leakproof feature will keep your stuff protected.
The whelping pads are human-graded, meaning the fabric is safe for humans. You can have a nice playtime with your pup on these excellent dog pads. They are non-slippery, so if your puppy runs over them, they won’t delocalize. Besides, these durable pads are easy to wash. Just throw them in the washing machine and relax on the couch—no need to do it by hand. Though thicker than other pads, they dry quickly but under low-temperature settings. Unquestionably, CoolShields have the best pee pads for senior dogs.

Pricing & Tech Specs

  • Price: $19.99 – $45.99
  • Color: Gray
  • Size: 34″ X 52″/ 48″ X 65″/ 72″ X 72″

Pros

  • Comfortable material
  • Good absorbance
  • Safe for your little ones

Cons

  • May stink
  • Drying takes a long time
  • Though anti-tear, still puppy can rip tiny holes that get bigger with each wash.
SSRIVER Dog Grass Pad,51.1x31.8In Fake Grass for Dogs
  • LARGE AREA : 51.1 x 31.8 x 1.18 In. 

  • HIGH QUALITY : Fake grass for dogs is made of high quality friendly PE material. 

  • EASY TO CLEAN : Dog grass pad has designed with vertical drainage rubber backing to drain water.

  • PRACTICAL & BEAUTIFUL : Inspired by nature, the pad’s appearance and texture looks & feels like real grass. 

The SSRIVER Dog Grass pads look just like a natural lawn. The fake grass is of premium quality and is made of dog-friendly material. So don’t worry; your pet won’t get rashes. It comes in different sizes that are suitable for dogs of all ages. You can easily install the fake lawn anywhere, like on your balcony, flooring, or backyard, if it has no grass. If you don’t have a pet or your pet doesn’t use the mat, you can use it as a doormat. Stepping on the fake grass gives absolute pleasure.
Moreover, the fake grass is weather-resistant and woven so perfectly that it never comes out, even after repeated washings. The perfect vertical drainage only allows dog pee or water to stay on the grass pad for a short time. You can easily clean it with mild soapy water. Besides, drying is not an issue as it doesn’t take much time. Because of its non-odorous feature, you can use it multiple times. With every wash, you’ll find it brand new. It never gets dull with repeated washes.
These grass pads are made of unique fire-resistant material. They are lightweight, that’s why it’s easy to carry them. Also, buying the grass pad saves a lot of time. You don’t have to grow grass on the back lawn. Your artificial lawn doesn’t need water, no mowing, or spending hours pulling the nasty weeds out. Just buy the mat and take the feel of the yard.

Pricing & Tech Specs

  • Price: $25.99 – $69.99
  • Color: Green
  • Size: Small, medium, large, extra large

Pros

  • Weather resistant
  • Dries easily
  • Feel like real grass
  • Suitable for indoor and outdoor use

Cons

  • Not leak proof
  • Need an extra tray to prevent mess
SincoPet Reusable Pee Pad + Free Puppy Grooming Gloves
  • Great Material of 4 Layers 

  • Anti-Slip Bottom 

  • Washable & Reusable 

  • Multiply Functions

  • Excellent Soaking Capacity 

Do you know why people love Sinco reusable pee pads? Because these pee pads/potty pads have four layers. The surface is made of pure polyester, giving your pooch comfort and wicks urine quickly. The second and third layers are super absorbent and waterproof. The bottom layer is also pure polyester with silica gel points to keep the dog pad in place. In addition, its leak-proof that keeps your flooring protected.
The pads save you money as they are washable. You don’t need to buy them again and again. When you think the pad needs washing, wash them either by hand or in the washing machine. Drying is also easy. Moreover, the pads are perfect for dogs of all sizes. You can use them under the playpen and as protection for the kennel or dog crate.
These pee-pee pads have high absorption capacity. Your canine companion can pee more than 20-30 times on the pad. You can rotate them afterward. Another way you can use the pad is to serve food. If your pup is a voracious eater who spills food and water on the floor, you can opt for these pads. As it’s easy to clean them, it will save you time from cleaning the entire floor after every time your pet eats food.
Another good thing about these washable dog pads is that they come in pairs with free gloves. You can use them while cleaning the pads. Wear gloves and wash the pads. Simple!

Pricing & Tech Specs

  • Price: $27.96
  • Color: Brown
  • Size: 36 Round Inch (Other sizes are also available)

Pros

  • Durable
  • Easy to wash
  • Don’t slip

Cons

  • Not fully leak-proof. You have to place pee pads at the bottom
  • Does have ultra-absorbance
Washable Underpads for use as Incontinence Bed Pads
  • HIGHLY ABSORBENT

  • QUILTED CLOTH

  • FITS TWIN, QUEEN & KING

  • MACHINE WASHABLE 

  • KEEP DIGNITY IN PLACE 

The Green Lifestyle’s Washable Underpads are the best dog pee pads. The underpads are thick. They have multiple layers that improve their absorbance. Besides dogs, these multi-purpose pads are an excellent option for incontinent adults and seniors. It also keeps your bed safe from accidents your toddler does at night.
As these pee pads are leak-proof, you can install them anywhere, like on the couch, sofa, floor, balcony, etc. No worries about the leakage! Moreover, it can hold large quantities of liquid. So your dog can easily spend the entire night on it comfortably. When you think the pad needs washing, throw it in the machine. It’s safe for machine washing. Drying also doesn’t require much time.

The pads come in different sizes. All have a quilted design that locks moisture and a waterproof, non-slip backing layer. The edges are also reinforced, which gives the pads a long life.

Pricing & Tech Specs

  • Price: $24.99 – $44.99
  • Size: Small, medium, large, and extra-large washable dog pee pads for giants

Pros

  • Lightweight
  • Comfortable
  • Can be used for multiple purposes

Cons

  • Repeat washing can dull the product
  • High temperature damages the under pads
IMPROVIA Washable Underpads, 34" x 36" (Pack of 2) - Heavy Absorbency Reusable Bedwetting Incontinence Pads for Kids,
  • MAXIMUM ABSORBENCY 

  • SELF-DRYING TECHNOLOGY 

  • WASHABLE UP TO 500X 

  • SAFE FOR SENSITIVE SKIN 

  • USES AND APPLICATIONS

IMPROVIA washable Underpass are known for their quick and effective absorption capacity. The brand claims it to be the only pad that wicks the fluid to the edges. These under pads have three layers. The upper layer is soft and has a unique fast-drying technology with a professional touch. Then, the green soaker layer gives the product maximum absorbance. The backing is non-slip and non-leaky. In addition, the pads are lightweight, i.e., only one pound.
Another outclass feature of IMPROVIA under pads is that they can be washed more than 500 times. Most other pee pads lose their quality after 200-300 washes. But these under pads are more durable. In addition to it, the pads are resistant to stains. These pads are skin friendly and don’t cause infections.
The under pads dry on their own in just 10 minutes and you can also use them for toddlers, sick or old family members. For pets, they are ideal for pee or potty training.

Pricing & Tech Specs

  • Price: $ 19.99 – $ 89.99. (Depending upon how many pieces you buy)
  • Color: Blue
  • Size: 34″ X 36″

Pros

  • Soft on skin
  • Drying on its own
  • Leak-proof
  • Multiple uses

Cons

  • Not comfortable for all

Things You Need to Consider Before Buying Washable Pee Pads for Dogs

Washable pee pads are a lifesaver. You don’t have to worry about your dog pooping or leaking all around the house. It keeps your stuff safe and saves you from the headache of cleaning your floor twice or thrice a day. You can only get all these comforts when you buy the doggie pee pads wisely. Only some pee pads prove to be the best. It would be best if you did proper research first. Here are a few necessary things that you must consider before buying reusable potty pads.

1)Size of washable potty pads
Size matters a lot. If you accidentally buy an extra-large washable puppy pad, it’s not an issue. You can save it for later use. But a small-sized pet pee pad for big dogs is just a waste of money. Your god will not fit on the pad and create mess and disgust. So, it would help if you shopped for pads that match your dog’s needs. Also, buy more than one pad to keep rotating them when one is hung out for drying.
2)Absorbance and holding capacity of dog mats for pee/ pet pee pads
Checking the absorbance and the liquid holding capacity is a must. A pad with moderate or little absorbance is useless. Such pads will not absorb the liquid. When your canine companion gets free from nature’s call, a puddle on the pee pad will wet your dog. As a result, the pet will create an absolute mess in the house. So, look for multilayered pee pads with high absorbance sheets.
How much pee a pee pad can hold is also quite important. The more the holding capacity, the longer you’ll be able to use it. So, before buying a pee pad, check these two parameters in the product details section. Reading customers’ reviews would also aid you in choosing the best potty pads for your dogs.
3)Go for leak-proof washable puppy pee pads
Some pee pads have drainage holes on the back side to allow the liquid to flow quickly. Such pads are an excellent tool for potty training your pet. But these are not suitable for indoor use. Either you have to buy under pads or keep a tray to avoid leakages. You must opt for leakproof pee pads because they serve best indoors and can also be used outdoors while traveling. In addition, they are more economical.
4)Look for soft and comfortable reusable dog pads
More than just washable pet pads are required. Go for soft and comfortable washable dog pads. Pee pads with a soft polyester surface layer are often chosen because your four-pawed furry companions love thick pee pads that give them the warmth and comfort they need.
5)The pee pads must have a non-slip backing
A pee pad is your pup’s toilet, playground, and dining table. It must have a firm grip so that it remains intact when your dog plays or walks on it. It will not only help your pet in using the toilet also but adequately prevent accidents. For instance, if your dog runs on the pee pad, he may slip and bump his body on the floor or something sharp. It can cause serious injuries. Pee pads with non-slip silica gel or rubber particles will reduce these incidents.
6)The durability of the pee pads
How durable your dog’s pee pad is, is an important question, and we have the answer. It would help if you bought those pee pads that can withstand multiple washes. These ones are not of strong material usually shred after one wash. They don’t last long, and you must buy new pee pads every time you wash them. Generally, polyester and polyurethane pee pads are the most durable ones. So, it would be best if you looked for them for your beloved canine companion.

Washable Dog Pee Pad

Tips for Washing the Pee Pads

Until now, you’ve got enough knowledge about pee pads. Now that you’ve decided to buy a few pee pads for your canine companion, we have some fantastic tips. These tips will increase the life of the pee pads. So, without wasting time, let’s get some information.
1)Use warm water
Wash the reusable pee pads for dogs with warm water. Ensure it’s warm, not hot, as hot water damages the pads’ backing. It also causes the fabric to shrink, making the pee pads less durable.
2)Use disinfectant
While washing, add disinfectant to the warm water to kick the germs away. For some pee pads, bleach is a good disinfectant but is not suitable for all pads. So read the instructions from the washable puppy pad pack before washing.
3)Wash separately
Refrain from washing the reusable pee pad with your everyday clothes. The pee smell will make your clothes smelly too. Some clothes release their dye when washed. It can destroy the color of the pee pad. In addition to it, it’s also ethically unacceptable.
4)Deodorize the pads
Peeing frequently on the pee pads makes them smelly. So, use a deodorizer to wipe off the bad smell from the pads. You can use a commercial deodorizer or make it at home also. Here’s the simplest homemade deodorizer for you.
Take a container. Add 20-25 drops of your favorite essential oil to it. Shake them well. Sprinkle the baking soda on a clean dried pee pad. Allow it to stay there for 30 – 60 minutes. It will absorb all the smell from the pad. Vacuum the pad before installing it for your dog. Or you can also soak the pee pads in baking soda water for some time. It is also a pretty practical tip.

Conclusion

Pee pads are now an essential part of dog grooming. Giving the pets potty training is a must to avoid accidents, and washable pee pads have made it even easier. You must train him to pee on a pad if you stay out of your house due to work and have a pet dog. The best part is that the pads are reusable, and washing them is easy. That’s why we have come up with the eight best dog pads for training dogs after going through the ratings and reviews of the product. LOOBANI washable pee pad tops them all. But it does make others less valuable. All are budget-friendly and loved by the customers. So, you must go for these best dog training pads.  

The diagnosis and treatment of urinary disease

Abstract

The urinary system plays an vital role in excretion of the waste products and maintenance of electrolyte balance.The urinary disease can cause metabolic disturbances and derangements of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance by any changing of pathology of the urinary system.It is too important to have a right diagnosis in the clinical.Radiography examination include Ultrasound (US) and X-ray are the most usually used clinical method for diagnostic urinary tract disease in dogs, as they are easy to perform to owners, inexpensive and provides excellent contrast resolution in clinical. Ultrasound is furthermore useful for guiding interventional procedures,which is more useful than X-ray some time.The urinary bladder is ideally suited for sonographic examination,we will also take urethral catheterization by it. In the urinary system It may have various differential diagnosis such as cystic neoplasm,cystic calculi and cystitis. Urinary tract infection is common in dogs especially in females,which is most often reporting the result of ascending fecal bacterial contamination of the vulva, perivulvar skin, vestibule.Treatment is easily to be taken under a right diagnosis and the prognosis can be depended on the ultrasonography which can judging the abnormalities of urinary bladder either in its wall or in the density of urine.

Key words: cystitis,cystoliths,diagnosis,

1.Basic information

Name: DA MA

Breed: Maltese

Sex: Female (castrated)

Age: 1.5 years old

Body weight: 14.7kg

History: regular vaccination and deworming on time

2. Before therapy

Upon initial presentation,the dog started to appear lethargic and weak.The pollakiuria and hematuria was noted in recent days.Regular vaccination and deworiming are giving on time,and eat commercial foods for DA MA.Without any changing with the symptoms,owners took her to the hospital.

3. Physical examination

The physical examination revealed a moderate distended and mild painful in the abdominal palpation.Heart rate was 110bpm.Respiratory rate was 30 per min.Temperature was 38.6℃.a prolonged(>2s)capillary refill time(CRT),and the presence of white foam on the tongue.It’s seemed to be no evidence of of foreign body in the abdomen.

4.Laboratory examination

4.1  Complete Blood Count(CBC)examination

Table 1  The result of the CBC examination

Project

Result

Reference Range

WBC

20

6-17×109/L

RBC

6.28

5.5-8.5×1012/L

HGB

145

120-180g/L

HCT

42.8

37-55%

MCV

66.7

66-77fL

MCH

21.5

19.9-24.5pg

MCHC

342

300360g/L

PLT

496

200-500×109/L

LYM%

6.0

1230%

OTHR%

82.5

60-77%

EO%

3.8

210%

LYM

1.9

1.5-4.8×109/L

OTHR

21.6

311.5×109/L

EOS

1.0

0.1-1.25×109/L

 

4.2 The result of the CRP examination

Project

Result

Reference Range

CRP

91.2

<20mg/L

CBC examination showed a obvious elevated of the white blood cells in patient,preliminary with the neutrophilic granulocyte.It may suggesting the highly possible existence of infection and inflammation.

The result of the CRP infer there was acute sever inflammation in the body,which was consistent with the result of CBC examination.

4.3  Idexx Catalyst biochemistry CHEM15

Table. 3  The result of the biochemistry CHEM15

Project

Result

Reference Range

GLU

5.31

3.89-7.95mmol/L

CREA

566

44-159umol/L

BUN

28.4

2.5-9.6mmol/L

BUN/CREA

5

 

PHOS

2.31

0.81-2.2mmol/L

CA

2.12

1.98-3mmol/L

TP

75

52-82g/L

ALB

28

22-39g/L

GLOB

45

25-45g/L

ALB/GLOB

0.62

 

ALT

233

10-125U/L

ALKP

200

23-212U/L

GGT

5

0-11U/L

TBIL

12

0-15umol/L

CHOL

6.13

2.84-8.26mmol/L

Biochemistry CHEM15 examination findings showed significant azotemia and hyperphosphorus, combined with physical examination and the symptom of the patient, suggested the possibility of urinary disease which was trigger by the pre or postreanl azotemia.Alanine transaminase was significantly increased,it may infer there was cells injury in the body.The result of ALKP,GGT and total bilirubin were not significantly increased.Cholesterol was normal.

4.4  X-ray examination

The diagnosis and treatment of urinary disease

Picture 1.Moderately to markedly radiopaque markings were found in the abdomen of patient.(VD radiograph)

The diagnosis and treatment of urinary disease

Picture 2. Moderately to markedly radiopaque markings were found in the abdomen of patient. – lateral radiograph

4.5、Ultrasonic examination

The diagnosis and treatment of urinary disease The diagnosis and treatment of urinary disease The diagnosis and treatment of urinary disease

Ultrasonic findings:

  • The bladder was fullin the examination, with the size of 3.37cm*1.41cm*2.43cm. The echo of the bladder wall was decreased with a low echo performance, thickness was about 0.19cm. There were high echo gritty suspended objects in the bladder, and several high echo liner with posterior acoustic.
  • The bilateralof kidneys outline wereclear, with a length of 2.62cm (left) and 2.67cm (right). The cortex showed moderate echo, the medulla showed low echo, and the cortical medulla was clearly demarcated. Doppler flow signal was distribution visibly in the image. No obvious dilatation was observed in renal pelvis and ureter.

Ultrasound diagnosis:

1.The decreasing of echo of bladder wall was indicating the cystitis;

2.High echoic suspension in the bladder, which were suspected of bladder crystallization;

3.Bladder stones (approximately at least three, the size of the largest one was about 1.31cm*0.85cm)

5.Diagnosis

Urolithiasis, cystitis

6.Treatment

6.1. Physical Urolith Removal

6.2. Antimicrobial Therapy:Ampicillin 25 mg/kg PO, IV, SC q12h

6.3. Calculolytic Diet Therapy:Hill’s Prescription Diet s/d.

In this case, the urinary obstruction did not happen.But it was necessary to remove the stones by surgical method to prevent urinary obstruction especially considering the size of stones (obstruction position can be found in renal pelvis, ureter, or urethra); when medical dissolution therapy fails; and for unacceptable clinical signs associated with urolithiasis.Antimicrobials are essential for treating infection-induced struvite uroliths.

Canine diets available for struvite dissolution include Purina Pro Plan Veterinary Diets UR Urinary St/O, and Royal Canin Veterinary Diet Urinary SO.Hill’s s/d is not intended for long-term maintenance nutrition. It must be used cautiously in young patients (i.e. because of reduced protein); in patients with hypertension and cardiac disease (i.e. because of increased sodium content); and in patients with history of pancreatitis (i.e. because of increased lipid content).Decreased BUN and albumin as well as increased ALP can occur in patients receiving Hill’s s/d.

After the physical removal,the patient was recovery and its urination was normal,but the diet therapy must be insisted at least 3 months and according the result of the symptom and urine examination.

7.Conclusion

Definition
Urolithiasis is one of a urinary disease which means one or more stones (uroliths) in the urinary tract. Uroliths can be found in the upper urinary tract (i.e. renal pelvis, ureter) and/or lower urinary tract (i.e. urinary bladder, urethra). Approximately 97% of uroliths occur in the lower urinary tract.

The most common of urolithiasis is struvite uroliths,which are composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate.Struvite uroliths occur most often in the urinary bladder and urethra, but they can occasionally be found in the upper urinary tract of dogs and rarely in cats.

Etiology and Pathophysiology
According to research, uroliths form with sustained alterations in urine which promote supersaturation of certain substances. Eventually, crystals form, which can become an organized stone.There is a Possibility that the factors involved in urolith formation consist of pH, mineral concentration of urine.Besides,inhibitors and promoters of urolith formation,complexors and macrocrystalline matrix are the factors too.Struvite uroliths can be infection-induced or sterile. In dogs,the most common form that inducing struvite urolithiasis is infection, whereas sterile struvite urolithiasis is more usual to be found in the cat.

Prevalence
According to various studies, struvite uroliths are currently either the most common urolith isolated from dogs or are a close second to calcium oxalate uroliths.Struvite uroliths accounted for 53.4% of canine uroliths submitted over a 19-year period in a report from the USA.Struvite uroliths accounted for 43% in a study from the UK and 32.9% in a study from Spain and Portugal.One study from Canada reported that 35.8% of all uroliths submitted from 1998-2014 were struvite uroliths.In a report from the Netherlands, struvite uroliths made up 40.9% of all submissions.Struvite uroliths accounted for 41% of all uroliths submitted from dogs to the Minnesota Urolith Center in 2007.Note that over time, incidence of canine struvite urolith submissions have declined, while calcium oxalate submissions have increased.Struvite uroliths accounted for approximately 75% of canine submissions in 1985.

Signalment
A Single struvite urolith is the most commonly diagnosed in young and adult dogs. They are also the most common type of urolith diagnosed in dogs <1 year of age.1 Struvite uroliths are more likely to form in female dogs than males. Approximately 71-85% of struvite uroliths submitted are from females.Small and toy breeds are more likely to be affected than large breed dogs.Breed predispositions include the cocker spaniel, miniature poodle, miniature schnauzer, shih tzu, lhasa apso, Pekingese, dachshund, and bichon frise.Some studies have also reported increased prevalence in the golden retriever, Labrador retriever, Bernese mountain dog, Saint Bernard, and rottweiler.Clinical Signs in some patients with struvite urolithiasis are asymptomatic. Hematuria, pollakiuria, stranguria, urinary incontinence, dysuria, vomiting, fever, dehydration, lethargy, depression, abdominal pain, vocalization, and/or collapse may be noted.

When to Suspect Struvite Stones

Bladder stones come in several mineral compositions. The most common stone types are oxalate and struvite.Because of the treatment is different for each type, it is crucial to determine the stone type. The stone type can be confirmed by stone analysis if a sample stone is available (either passed naturally or obtained via surgery). Laboratory analysis is a easily way to determine the content of the stone and even determine what the stone consists of. Without a sample stone, there are still some hints which can be obtained through other tests like microscope examination.As mentioned, struvite stones in dogs are almost always formed because of the nature of urinary changes occur with specific types of bladder infection: Staphylococcal is the first commonly infection bacterial but occasionally a Proteus infection. If a urine culture from a patient with a bladder stone should grow either staph or proteus, this would make struvite more likely than oxalate. Also, struvite requires an alkaline pH environment to form while oxalate requires form in an acid pH; urine pH is a key part of any urinalysis and thus provides another clue as to the stone’s identity.An well educated infer is better than nothing but does not replace the analysis of a stone. Do not forget that a stone of one type forms around a stone of another type occasionally . So a complete urinary or stone analysis is needed to effectively prevent recurrence.

The choice of the treatment

Struvite stones can be removed surgically with a technique called Cystotomy,and the other way is voiding urohydropropulsion in some cases; removed with a cystoscope (if they are small enough); or dissolved by diet. Stone dissolution with diet is the least invasive compared with the other ways and probably the best option unless the patients needs a faster treatment, considering if there is risk of urinary obstruction in a male dog in the future.

Dietary therapy is a medical treatment to prevent new struvite stones is of secondary importance in dogs (except the English Cocker spaniel, for which this is reported a hereditary metabolic problem rather than infection). The focus is on preventing infection. If the dog has a history of struvite bladder stones, we should discuss long-term monitoring to the owner and understand what schedule of testing is best for their dogs. During the time,we will expect periodic urine cultures.And emphasizing therapeutic diet must be the only food fed till the stone is completely dissolved. Antibiotic drugs are always needed as long as stones are in the bladder because of the existence of the bacteria in stones. Every 4 to 6 weeks, new radiographs should be taken to evaluate the stone size and if is at least 20 percent smaller than initial size, the process can be continued. A urinalysis is checked to be sure the proper urinary conditions for dissolution are being created by the dietary therapy.In the reported that the average are needed to dissolve the stone is 2 to 3 months, but the therapy should be continued for a month after the stones are no longer visible on the radiography examination since small stones may not be large enough to find.Microscope examination can be taken to check in this situation to have a more accurate result.If the infection has been controlled ,small stones can be dissolved in as short a time as a few weeks.

What should we pay attention after the treatment?

Many pet owner will focus on the recurrence of their patients.After stones are removed one way or another, the focus shifts to prevention. Usually the patients are predisposed to a bladder infection somehow, means they are also inclined to form more struvite bladder stones. A stone can form as quickly as two weeks after infection if a urease-positive bacterium sets in.After surgery, antibiotics must be continued until the infection is confirmed to have cleared (i.e. a negative urine culture is obtained). After this, a follow-up schedule of radiographs and/or urine testing is recommended. For a single stone episode in some dogs , only follow-up visits for many times may be necessary. Realize that some individual dogs are exactly predisposed to recurring infections in bladder and they may form new struvite stones again and again. Obviously, if the stones recur, a more regular monitoring schedule would have to be revised.Dietary therapy in the prevention of struvite stones is of secondary importance in dogs. The main focus is on preventing infection. If your dog has had a history of struvite bladder stones, make sure to discuss long-term monitoring and understand what testing schedule is best for your dog. Expect periodic urine cultures to be needed.

What is the Best Dogs’ Car Ramp for SUV Car in 2022

seat pet

A dog car ramp is a device to assist dogs in getting in and out of vehicles. Senior dogs or dogs most commonly used car ramps for dogs with disabilities that make it difficult for them to jump into cars. You can also use a dog car ramp for healthy but small dogs.
Dog car ramps have become increasingly popular in recent years as more and more pet owners look for ways to make travel easier for their furry friends. However, there are many different options on the market, so it’s essential to choose the right one for your needs.
To help you make the best decision for your dog, we’ve compiled a list of the best dog ramps for cars and SUVs in 2022.
On our list, you’ll find ramps of all different sizes, weights, and materials to find the perfect match for your needs. We’ve also included a budget-friendly and extra-long option for taller vehicles.
No matter which car dog ramp you choose, your dog will surely appreciate your extra effort to keep them comfortable and safe!

seat pet

10 Best Dog Ramps for SUVs Cars in 2022

So, which dog ramp for an SUV car is right for you and your dog? Here is a quick overview of the different market-available car ramps for dogs to help you make the best choice for your needs.

LOOBANI Dog Car Ramp
  • DOGs SAFE PLATFORM–Our Dog Car Ramp provides a safe platform for large dogs, short legs, aging dogs, and dogs with arthritis injuries to climb up and down.

  • STURDY and DURABLE–Compared with plastic ramps, which made of rust-proof aluminum alloy overall frame, adds a thick board inside to prevent the surface to sink when dogs climb without anxiety.

  • LIGHTWEIGHT and EASY CARRY–LOOBANI adjustable dog steps only 10Lbs. 5 seconds unfolded when in use the dog ladder.

  • ANTI-SLIP COMFORT SURFACE–High-quality Oxford cloth and cute dog pawprint rubber surface to prevent dogs from slipping when climbing.

The LOOBANI Dog Car Ramp is the best overall dog ramp for cars. Loobani dog ramp is made of high-quality materials and is very sturdy. It is also effortless to use and set up.
The LOOBANI Dog Car Ramp is the best car ramp for all dog owners who love traveling with their furry friends. This dog ramp to the car is perfect for helping your dog get in and out of the car, and it also features a unique non-slip surface that keeps your dog safe and secure. The ramp is also lightweight and easy to carry, making it perfect for taking.
The LOOBANI Dog Car Ramp is a lightweight dog ramp for cars. The ramp is made of an aluminum alloy frame and can support up to 300 or more pounds. It is also equipped with a non-slide surface and anti-skid feet, making it safe for your dog.
If you’re looking for a dog ramp that’s easy to use and perfect for car side doors, the LOOBANI dog ramp for the side car door is a great option. This ramp is made from durable materials and can support larger dogs. It’s also great for dogs with joint pain, as it’s designed to reduce the impact on joints.

Pricing & Tech Specs

  • Price: $96.99 – $129.99

  • Material: 1680D PVC Oxford cloth

  • Size: 24″-26″

  • Length: 37″-44.5″

  • Weight: 10 Lbs.

Pros

  • Affordable
  • Heavy Duty
  • Sturdy 
  • Wide, deep steps
  • Non-slippery
  • Washable runner

Cons

  • Handle less
PetSafe Happy Ride Folding Dog Ramp for Cars
  • SAFETY TESTED & DURABLE: This strong ramp is independently tested and rated to support pets up to 150 lb

  • LIGHTWEIGHT: Weighs only 10 pounds so the ramp is easy to carry and lift in and out of the car between stops

  • NO SLIPPING: High traction surface and side rails keep your furry friend from slipping or falling when walking on the ramp

  • SIMPLE TO STORE: Ramp easily folds in half and locks with the safety latch to let you conveniently store it in your vehicle

The PetSafe Happy Ride Foldable Dog Car Ramp is an excellent choice for pet owners looking for a safe and easy way to get their dogs in and out of their cars. This ramp is made from durable materials and features a non-slip surface to keep your dog safe. PetSafe car ramp also folds up for easy packing and transport. 
One of the best features of the Petsafe Happy Ride Foldable dog ramps for the car is its portability. This ramp can easily be folded up and transported, making it perfect for taking on the go. The Happy Ride Foldable Dog Car Ramp also features a non-slip surface that is gentle on your dog’s paws. This ramp is also lightweight and easy to maneuver, making it an excellent choice for dogs of all sizes.
Here are some of the other great features of the petsafe happy ride telescoping dog car ramp:
1.It is made from durable materials that can withstand up to 150 pounds.
2.The non-slip surface keeps your dog safe while using the dog ramps for car side doors.
3.It has a built-in handle for easy carrying.
4.It comes with a Lifetime Warranty.

Pricing & Tech Specs

  • Price: $74.95
  • Dimension: ‎62 x 16 x 4 inches
  • Weight: 10 lbs.
  • Material: Plastic

Pros

  • Lightweight
  • Cheap
  • Easy to clean

Cons

  • Not enough traction
PetSafe Happy Ride Extra Long Telescoping Dog Ramp
  • EXTRA LONG ADJUSTABLE SIZING: Longer length and extra wide telescoping ramp allows you to help your pet get in and out of vehicles with steeper inclines

  • SAFETY TESTED and DURABLE: This strong ramp is independently tested and rated to support pets up to 300 lb

  • LIGHTWEIGHT: Weighing 18 pounds the ramp is easy to carry and lift in and out of the car between stops

  • NO SLIPPING: High-traction surface and side rails keep your furry friend from slipping or falling when walking on the ramp

The PetSafe Extra-Long Telescoping Ramp is an excellent choice for pet parents who are looking for a safe and easy ramp for dogs to get in a car. This ramp is made from durable materials and can support up to 200 pounds, making it ideal for large dogs. 
The PetSafe dog car ramp on amazon also features a non-slip surface to keep your pet safe and a built-in leash attachment to keep them secure. In addition, the telescoping design can be easily stored away when not in use, and the extra-long length makes it perfect for use with SUVs, trucks, and other high-riding vehicles.

Pricing & Tech Specs

  • Price: US$149.95
  • Dimension: 48 x 20 x 4 inches
  • Weight: 18 pounds
  • Material: Aluminum Frame

Pros

  • High-traction surface
  • Comfortably access to vehicles

Cons

  • Expensive
Pet Gear supertraX Ramps for Dogs and Cats

Pet Gear Travel Lite Ramp

  • Pressure activated grip allows for pets’ paws to easily grip into the mat, providing sure-footing

  • SupertraX mat removes for easy cleaning

  • Built-in handle and easy fold for portability and compact storage (no tools required). Rubberized bottom grippers for secure placement.

  • Raised edges help prevent pet from slipping off of the side. Safety tether included for securing ramp to the back of most vehicles.
  • SupertraX mat is soft, protecting pets’ paws and auto interiors.

The Pet Gear Travel Lite Ramp is a collapsible dog ramp for cars. This large dog ramp for the car is lightweight aluminum and can support up to 150-200 pounds. It has a non-slip surface and folds up for easy storage. The Travel Lite Ramp is an excellent choice for pet owners looking for a ramp that is easy to use and transport.
The Pet Gear Travel Lite Ramp is an excellent option if you’re looking for a pet ramp that is easy to transport. This ramp is made of durable aluminum and features a non-slip surface, making it ideal for use with both dogs and cats. The Travel Lite Ramp also folds up for easy storage and has a built-in carry handle.

Pricing & Tech Specs

  • Price: ‎US$68.50
  • Material: Plastic
  • Dimensions: 42 x 16 x 4 inches
  • Weight: 11 Ibs. 

Pros

  • Cheap
  • Bi-fold design

Cons

  • The incline may go through off dogs
WeatherTech PetRamp, Folding Dog Ramp for Large Dogs to 300 Pounds
  • Pressure activated grip allows for pets’ paws to easily grip into the mat, providing sure-footing

  • SupertraX mat removes for easy cleaning

  • Built-in handle and easy fold for portability and compact storage (no tools required). Rubberized bottom grippers for secure placement.

  • Raised edges help prevent pet from slipping off of the side. Safety tether included for securing ramp to the back of most vehicles.
  • SupertraX mat is soft, protecting pets’ paws and auto interiors.

The WeatherTech Folding Dog Ramp is a ramp for the dog to get into the car. This ramp is made from a durable, lightweight material that can support up to 150 pounds, making it perfect for even the most giant dogs. It also features a non-slip dog ramp for a car that keeps your pet safe and a convenient folding design that makes it easy to transport and store. 
This ramp is made from a durable aluminum construction and features a non-slip surface that helps keep your dog safe. The ramp also folds up for easy storage and transport, making it an excellent option for pet owners who travel with their dogs.

Pricing & Tech Specs

  • Price: $124.95
  • Dimension: 67 x 33.5 x 15 inches
  • Weight: 16 lbs.
  • Material: Rubber

Pros

  • Slight slope
  • Foldable

Cons

  • Expensive
Pet Gear Travel Lite Ramps for Dogs and Cats
  • Slip-resistant surface provides sure footing

  • Easy fold for compact storage

  • Built in molded handle for portability

  • Rubber grippers on bottom help keep ramp steady

  • Measures 71 x 16 x 4-inches; for pets up to 200-pounds

The Pet Gear Tri-Fold Dog Car Ramp is a foldable dog ramp for the car to help your dog get in and out of your car without injuries. The ramp has a non-slip surface and is made of durable materials, so you can be sure your dog will be safe when using it. In addition, the ramp folds up for easy storage, and it comes with a carrying case for easy transport.
The Pet Gear folding dog car ramp is an excellent choice for pet owners looking for a ramp for cars for dogs that is easy to use and store. This ramp is made of durable materials and can support up to 200 pounds. It also has a non-slip surface to keep your pet safe while using the ramp.

Pricing & Tech Specs

  • Price: $73.00
  • Dimension: 71″L x 19.5″W x 4″H
  • Weight: 15 lbs.
  • Material: Plastic

Pros

  • Can bear more than 200 pounds weight pooch
  • Sturdy
  • Tri-fold

Cons

  • Not easy to clean
TRIXIE Pet Ramp Small, Black, 39 inches
  • Ideal for smaller dogs

  • Suitable for indoor and outdoor use – use with lower profile furniture or vehicles.

  • Safety features include non-slip coating and side rails

  • Non-slip rubber feet keep the ramp in place

  • Easy to clean

  • Materials: plastic, rubber

  • Maximum weight limit is 110 lbs

  • Recommended for pets with Arthritis to protect pet’s joints

If you’re looking for a pet ramp that is durable, easy to use, and can accommodate a variety of pets, then the Trixie Pet Ramp is a great option. This pet ramp is made from sturdy plastic and has a non-slip surface, making it a safe choice for your pet. The Trixie Pet Ramp is also easy to use, with a simple design that allows your pet to access your car or home quickly. Additionally, the Trixie Pet Ramp can accommodate a variety of pets, from small dogs to large cats. This car ramp for dogs is made from durable plastic that is safe for your pet. The dog car ramp for the side door has a non-slip surface to help keep your pet safe while using it.
When choosing a pet ramp, it is essential to select one made from high-quality materials that will not cause injury to your pet. The ramp should also be the proper size and weight for your pet and can bear a 200-pound weight.

Pricing & Tech Specs

  • Price: US$49.99
  • Dimension: 39 inches
  • Weight: 9.9 lbs.
  • Material: Plastic

Pros

  • Cheap
  • Foldable
  • Stable and sturdy

Cons

  • Less width
Gen7Pets Natural Step Ramp for Vehicles
  • Natural Step Ramp For Vehicles: Designed for safety and great for trucks, SUVs, and Jeeps.

  • Easy On The Go: Your dog will feel safe to walk up and down its 16″ wide walking path covered in poly-grass for a better grip.

  • Approved By Best Friends: Gen7Pets full line of products includes pet strollers, carriers, ramps, and steps with smart-features components, stylish-fashion, and simple-functionality for you and your pet.

  • Best Safety: Through quality, smartly designed products, Gen7Pets seeks to provide solutions that evoke trust, comfort and happiness

The Gen7Pets Natural-Step Ramp is the best dog ramp for the car side door. This car ramp is the best choice for pet owners looking for a safe and easy way to help their furry friends get around. This ramp is designed to mimic the natural incline of a staircase, making it easy and comfortable for dogs to use. 
The Gen7Pets Natural-Step Ramp also features a non-slip surface and a built-in rail to help keep your dog safe. This ramp is made from durable materials and features a non-slip surface, making it a safe option for your pet. Additionally, the ramp is easy to set up and use and can be folded for storage when not in use.
There are many benefits to using the Gen7Pets Natural-Step Ramp, including:
1.The ramp for dogs’ cars is a great way to help your pet get around safely
2.The durable materials and non-slip surface make the ramp a safe choice for your pet
3.The ramp is easy to set up and use
4.The ramp can be folded for storage when not in use

Pricing & Tech Specs

  • Price: $95.50
  • Dimension: 72″L x 16″W x 1.5″H
  • Weight: 17 pounds
  • Material: Plastic

Pros

  • Bi-fold design
  • Easy to use

Cons

  • Not sturdy
PetSTEP Original Folding Pet Ramp
  • Unique soft non-slip rubberized walking surface feels natural on paws and provides Superior Traction in all weather conditions.

  • No rough sandpaper or dirt-harboring carpet. Will not rust or corrode and can be cleaned with soap and water, Environment: Indoors and Outdoors

  • Universal non-slip grip fits all vehicles and edges while folding in half for easy storage and portability

  • Durable composite plastic construction is long-lasting and holds up to 500 lbs (animal use only)

The PetStep Original Folding Pet Ramp is an excellent choice for dogs that need a little help getting around. This ramp is made of durable, lightweight materials and features a non-slip surface to keep your pup safe. It’s easy to fold and transport, making it an excellent option for traveling or visiting the vet. Plus, the PetStep Original Folding best dog ramp for cars comes with a one-year warranty, so you can be sure it’s a quality product.
There are many benefits to using the PetStep Original Folding Pet Ramp. For example, it can help your dog stay active and engaged. It can also help your dog avoid injury by reducing the risk of falling or jumping. Additionally, the PetStep Original Folding Pet Ramp can help your dog get to higher places, such as onto a bed or car.

Pricing & Tech Specs

  • Price: $171.85
  • Dimension: 70″L x 17″W x 2.5″H
  • Weight: 19-22 lbs.
  • Material: Rubber

Pros

  • Support 500-pound weight

  • Prepared in the USA

  • Bi-fold Design

Cons

  • Expensive

Things to Consider When Buying Dog Ramps for Cars and SUVs

There are many factors to consider when choosing the right dog ramp for your car or SUV. The prime factor is the size of your furry friend. Make sure to measure your dog from paw to shoulder to get an accurate idea of how tall the ramp needs to be. The next factor is the weight of your dog. Some ramps are designed for small dogs, while others can accommodate larger breeds. Finally, another important consideration is the type of car or SUV you have. 
Some ramps for dogs to get into cars are made to fit specific vehicles, while others are Universal and can be used with any car. Finally, think about how often you will be using the ramp. If you plan to use it regularly, choose an accessible ramp to store and transport.

What are the different types of ramps available? 

Different types of ramps for dogs are available on the market. The three main types are fixed ramps, folding dog ramps for cars, and telescopic ramps. Every kind of ramp has its benefits and drawbacks, so choosing the right one for your dog is essential.
Fixed ramps are the sturdy and stable type of ramp, but they are also the most expensive. Foldable ramps are an excellent middle ground between fixed and telescopic ramps, offering more stability and portability than fixed ramps. Telescopic ramps are the most portable type of ramp, but they are also the least stable.
Which type of ramp is right for you and your dog will depend on your needs and preferences. If you need a ramp that is both sturdy and portable, a foldable ramp may be the best option.
Fixed Ramps
Fixed ramps are the most sturdy and durable dog ramps for the car. They’re great for dogs that need a lot of support when getting in and out of cars or climbing stairs. However, fixed ramps can be expensive, and they’re only sometimes easy to store.
Foldable Ramps
Foldable dog car ramps are an excellent middle ground between fixed and telescopic ramps. They’re less expensive than stationary ramps and easy to store, but they’re not as sturdy. Nevertheless, it makes them a good option for dogs that need support but don’t require much assistance.
A Telescopic Ramp
A telescopic ramp is a ramp that can be extended and retracted, making it easy to store and transport. The ramps are also great for use with taller vehicles, such as SUVs. Best of all, telescopic ramps for dogs can be used with almost any type, regardless of size or age. So a telescopic ramp is a perfect solution if you’re looking for a safe and easy way to get your dog into the car.

Why is it essential to have a ramp for your dog? 

There are many reasons why having a ramp for your dog is essential. First, a ramp provides a safe and easy way for your dog to get in and out of your car. It also helps to prevent your dog from jumping and injuring himself. A ramp can also help keep your car clean by preventing your dog from tracking mud and dirt into the car.
Ramps come in various styles and sizes, so you can find one that fits your needs. In addition, many ramps are adjustable so that you can use them for different car heights. Some portable dog ramps for the car even come with a storage bag, so you can easily take them with you on the go.
If you are looking for a way to make life easier for your large dog, a dog ramp for a large dog is a great option.

LOOBANI Dog Car Ramp

Key Features of Car Ramp for dog

Size and Shape

There are a few key features when choosing a ramp for your dog:

  1. The size of the rampshould be appropriate for your dog. It should be long enough to reach the ground from the height of your car and wide enough for your dog to walk up and down comfortably.
  2. The shape of the rampis essential. A ramp with a shallower incline will be more accessible for your dog to walk up, while a steeper slope will be better for taller cars.
  3. The material of the rampis also a consideration. A ramp made of slippery materials like plastic may be more difficult for your dog, so a ramp with a non-slip surface may be a better option.

Weight Limit

The weight limit is one of the most critical aspects of a car ramp for dogs. Make sure to choose a big dog car ramp that can support the weight of your big dog.

Another essential aspect to consider is the length of the dog ramp for the car’s back seat. Again, you will want to choose a long ramp to reach the ground from your car.

The width of the ramp is also essential. You will want to choose a ramp that is wide enough for your dog to walk up comfortably.

Make sure to choose a durable dog ramp car side door. You want your ramp to stay intact while your dog is using it.

Construction

One of the critical features of a car ramp for dogs is its construction. The ramp should be made of sturdy materials that can support a dog’s weight. It should also be designed to allow it to be easily set up and taken down. Additionally, the ramp should have a non-slip surface to keep your dog safe.

Many different types of DIY car dog ramps are available on the market today. Ramps can be made of other materials, such as aluminum, plastic, or wood. They come in various sizes, depending on the make and model of your car or SUV.

Aluminum ramps are a popular choice for many dog owners. They are lightweight and easy to transport yet strong enough to support your dog’s weight. In addition, aluminum ramps can be used for both cars and SUVs.

Plastic ramps are another popular option. They are typically less expensive than aluminum ramps, and they are also lightweight.

DIY car ramp for dogs

If you have a dog, you know that getting them in and out of the car can be challenging. If you don’t have a dog, you probably don’t know that getting them in and out of the vehicle can be difficult. Either way, this DIY dog ramp car is the perfect solution!

This ramp is easy to make and only requires a few materials that you probably already have around the house. Plus, it’s much cheaper than buying a ready-made ramp!

Here’s what you’ll need:

  1. One piece of plywood (at least 4 feet long and 2 feet wide)
  2. Four 2x4s (at least 4 feet long)
  3. One roll of duct tape
  4. One roll of carpet (optional)

To make the DIY dog car ramp, attach the 2x4s to the plywood using duct tape. If you want, you can cover the ramp with carpet to make it more comfortable for your dog.

Now you have a dog ramp for car DIY that is easy to make and will make getting in and out of the car a breeze!

Portability

One of the critical features of a car ramp for dogs is portability. It is essential because the ramp can be easily moved from one location to another, which is especially helpful if you need to use it in multiple vehicles. The best car ramp for large dogs is also easier to store when not in use. Finally, a ramp that is easy to transport is essential if you want to take your dog on trips and adventures.

There are various portable dog ramps for cars on the market, so finding one that suits your needs should not be difficult. Just make sure to consider the size and weight of the ramp when making your decision, as well as how easy it will be to set up and take down.

How to Train a Pooch to Use a Ramp

If you have a dog that loves to go for car rides, consider teaching them to use a car ramp. It can be a great way to ensure your dog is safe and comfortable when getting in and out of the car. Here are a few tips on how to train your dog to use a car ramp:
Start by getting your dog used to the DIY dog ramp for the car. Please place it in the car, let them sniff it, and explore it at their own pace.
Once your dog is comfortable with the ramp, start by leading it up slowly. Then, reward your furry friend with treats or praise as they make their way up.
If your dog is hesitant or seems scared, go slowly and make sure to give them plenty of encouragement.
Once your dog is comfortable going up and down the ramp, you can start using it whenever you go for car rides.

Final Verdict

After testing and reviewing dozens of dog ramps for cars and SUVs, we’ve come to a conclusion on the best ones for SUVs in 2022. The LOOBANI Dog Car Ramp is overall the best quality and budget ramp. At the same time, the PetSafe Dog Car Ramp is the best budget-friendly option, and the PetSafe Extra-Long Telescoping Ramp is the best-rated car ramp for dogs available on amazon.

Diagnosis and treatment of canine diabetic ketoacidosis(DKA)

Abstract

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a severe, life-threatening complication diabetes mellitus (DM) that is caused by an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin.A 13 years old dog (Name: Dumplings) with local purulent skin and infected ulcers on right hind limbs.Before coming to our hospital, he had been treated as a simple superficial dermatosis and bandage up the affected part for 4 days.The situation was worse during this days.In this case, we diagnosis as Diabetic ketoacidosis, and after the therapy, patient had gradually become stabilized.It was a big challenge to diagnose and treat in my clinical experience, and the cure rate depend on the condition of the therapeutic schedule and the body.

Key words

Diabetes: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), diagnosis, purulent infection
day 5 master feeling dog never see symptoms improved, depressed and in spirit, appetite waste, hence to come to our hospital. After auxiliary examination, the dog was initially diagnosed as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Subsequently, the dog was treated with fluid rehydration, anti-inflammatory and insulin, and the body condition gradually stabilized.

1.Basic information

Name: HUA HUA
Breed: Poodle
Sex: Female (castrated)
Age: 13 years old
Body weight: 4.7kg
History: regular vaccination and deworming on time

2.Before therapy

Owner took her to have a bathing 4 day ago.Puppy stylin found a ulcer on the skin of the right hind limb, which was purulent infection.So he see a veterinarian in the other animal hospital and the vet there treat as a simple trauma with surgical saline flushing.After 4 days of therapy, there was no changing of the symptom of the infected skin, and the patient started to be depression, losing appetite.So transferring to our hospital to have a further examination.

Diagnosis and treatment of canine diabetic ketoacidosis

3.Correlation examination

3.1 physical examination
Body weight 5.8kg, temperature 37.5℃, respiratory rate was 40/min.heart rate: 124 beats/min.mouth mucosa was pink, capillary refill time(CRT)>2s.body condition score(BCS)was 4/9. The patient was presented with depression.dry coat and nose. Abdominal palpation was found nervous and increased of abdomen.There were serve dental calculus and gingivitis in oral examination. A area of ulcer we can see on the skin of right hind limb, which was suppurative.
3.2 laboratory examination
3.2.1 Complete Blood Count(CBC)examination

Table 1 The result of the CBC examination(Day1)

Project

Result

Reference Range

WBC

10

6-17×109/L

RBC

3.68

5.5-8.5×1012/L

HGB

80

120-180g/L

HCT

23.8

37-55%

MCV

64.7

66-77fL

MCH

21.7

19.9-24.5pg

MCHC

336

300360g/L

PLT

543

200-500×109/L

LYM%

5.4

1230%

OTHR%

85.5

60-77%

EO%

8.8

210%

LYM

1.5

1.5-4.8×109/L

OTHR

23.9

311.5×109/L

EOS

2.5

0.1-1.25×109/L

3.2.2 Blood smear microscope under 100x

Diagnosis and treatment of canine diabetic ketoacidosis

Diagnosis and treatment of canine diabetic ketoacidosis

CBC examination showed a obvious anemia in patient, MCV decreased combined with blood smears microscope picture where were found different size of red bloods cells, we can have a preliminary judgement, it may be non-regenerative anemia in this report. To the white blood count index, we can see the rise of the white blood cells, as well as a right shift of the white blood cell nucleus in the microscope.It may suggesting the possible existence of infection and inflammation.Thrombocytopenia may be associated with neutrophilia and an underlying endocrine disorder.

3.2.3 Canine CRP examination
Table 2 The result of the CRP examination(Day1)

Project

Result

Reference Range

CRP

107.8

<20mg/L

The result of the CRP infer there was acute sever inflammation in the body, which was consistent with the result of CBC examination.

3.2.3 Idexx Catalyst biochemistry CHEM15
Table 3 The result of the biochemistry CHEM15(Day1)

Table 3  The result of the biochemistry CHEM15(Day1)

Project

Result

Reference Range

GLU

34.01

3.89-7.95mmol/L

CREA

775

44-159umol/L

BUN

34.4

2.5-9.6mmol/L

BUN/CREA

11

 

PHOS

4.35

0.81-2.2mmol/L

CA

2.30

1.98-3mmol/L

TP

78

52-82g/L

ALB

30

22-39g/L

GLOB

48

25-45g/L

ALB/GLOB

0.6

 

ALT

49

10-125U/L

ALKP

1963

23-212U/L

GGT

6

0-11U/L

TBIL

12

0-15umol/L

CHOL

10.13

2.84-8.26mmol/L

Biochemistry CHEM15 examination findings showed significant hyperglycemia, significant azotemia,and hyperphosphorus,combined with physical examination and the ratio of urea-nitrocreatinine, suggested the possibility of renal and prerenal azotemia. Alkaline phosphatase was significantly increased,but the result of GGT and total bilirubin were not significantly increased, cholesterol significantly increased,and there significant hyperglycemia at the same time, so it was suspected that it might be related to the steroid-induced increase of isoenzymes.

3.2.4 Electrolyte examination
Table 4 The result of the electrolyte examination

Project

Result

Reference Range

pH

7.108

7.25-7.40

pCO2

24.1

33-51mmHg

HCO3-act

7.5

13-25mmol/L

Na+

136

139-150mmol/L

K+

5.0

3.0-4.2mmol/L

Cl-

117

106-127mmol/L

AnGap

16

10-27

Osm

280

280-310mOsm/kg

Significant metabolic acidosis was observed in electrolytes examination. Mild hyponatremia and mild hyperkalemia may be associated with diabetes and kidney disease.
3.2.5 Blood pressure
The systolic blood pressure was 124mmHg as measured by a Doppler blood pressure monitor.
3.2.6 Diascopy and Fine needle aspiration examination

(A)Diagnosis and treatment of canine diabetic ketoacidosis

(B)Diagnosis and treatment of canine diabetic ketoacidosis

Picture 1. (A)A large number of degenerative neutrophils and several macrophages are seen.(B)and(A)The same slide sample, but with intracellular bacteria, suggests suppurative granulomatous inflammation caused by bacterial infection.

3.2.8 Urinalysis

Project

Result

Reference Range

Gravity

1.022

1.035-1.050

BLD

++

BIL

Neg.

UBG

Neg.

KET

++

GLU

++++

pH

5

6.0-7.0

In the urinalysis, we found the urine glucose and ketone were significantly increased, which means positive, the gravity of urine was lower than the reference range, and a large number of granular tubes were visible, suggesting diabetes, and there may be kidney injury or tubular disease. Mild occult blood.

4.Diagnosis

In conclusion with the consulting, clinical symptom,physical and laboratory examination, we have a preliminary diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis(DKA), and may concurrence with kidney and other endocrine disease.But the important thing was the treatment of DKA of patient now.

5.Treatment

The therapeutic goals of DKA animals are as follows:
1. Correct dehydration and electrolyte disorders:
(1) Replacement solution: Sodium lactate Ringer 250ml, ivgtt, 60ml/h: (If the concentration of sodium ion is >130mmol/L, sodium Ringer lactate should be used as the liquid; if the concentration of sodium ion is <130mmol/L, 0.9% normal saline should be used as the liquid)
(2) Maintenance solution: sodium lactate Ringer 360ml, ivgtt, 20ml/h: (Due to the electrolyte on the first day indicating mild hyperkalemia, no additional potassium chloride injection was added into the maintenance fluid, and further adjustment would be decided after the result of the electrolyte in the follow-up review. 1.5 to 2 times the amount of maintenance fluid is recommended in some cases)
(3) When the hydration status was corrected, the maintenance solution was continuously injected: sodium lactate Ringer 360-400ml+4ml10% potassium chloride injection, ivgtt, 20ml/h.
2. After 6h of the fluid therapy, adequate insulin was required to inhibit lipolysis, ketone body production, and the liver gluconeogenesis in the patient body.The dog was treated with the following insulin regimen: Insulin glargine (0.6U/kg/q12h) was injected subcutaneously, and blood glucose was monitored every 2h. When blood glucose was greater than 250mg/dL, short-acting insulin (0.1U/kg) was intramuscular injected, and hypoglycemia was monitored at the same time, with the goal of temporarily controlling blood glucose within 150-250mg/dL. Insulin treatment after stable blood glucose: 0.5-1U/kg, sc, q12h, blood glucose control below the renal threshold.
3.Correcting the acidosis of electrolyte: Sodium bicarbonate was not used to relieve acidosis in this case, and the current level of acidosis can be corrected by infusion and insulin. Blood gas results at 12h, 24h and 48h after treatment with fluid rehydration and insulin.

4.Treatment of complications:
(1) Improve renal perfusion through infusion and improve the situation of the azotemia;
(2) Using antibiotics to treat infection (abscess of the right leg) and control inflammation: amoxicillin clavulanate potassium, 18.5mg/kg, sc, qd.
(3)Painful management : Using analgesia, Butorphine, 0.2mg/kg, im, q8h;
(4)Provide iron-containing nutritional supplements to improve anemia;
(5)Provide carbohydrates (glucose) to allow continued insulin use without hypoglycemia.
Result of the case
On the third day after treatment, the acidosis of electrolyte was almost relieved. However, the elevated of the concentration of potassium ion in the dogs without adding more potassium chloride in the process of infusion, which may be suspected to be related to the co-existing kidney disease. And after 4 days of treatment, the patient had recover and go home.

6.Conclusion

Many dogs with DKA are presented as newly diagnosed diabetics.The mean age at diagnosis is 9-10 years of age.No sex or breed predisposition has been identified for DKA but they do exist for DM

Etiology and Pathophysiology

Insulin deficiency and increased levels of diabetogenic hormones (e.g. glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone, catecholamines) lead to abnormal glucose metabolism and hyperglycemia. In an insulin-deficient state, glucose transport into the cells is inadequate. Cells cannot use glucose for energy, which leads to cellular starvation. The body then starts to use adipose tissue as an alternate source of energy.Hormone-sensitive lipase is usually inhibited by insulin. With insulin deficiency, it facilitates the degradation of triglycerides and the formation of free fatty acids. Free fatty acids undergo beta oxidation within the cell to form acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA accumulates in the liver where it is converted into acetoacetyl-CoA and ketone bodies, such as beta hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, and acetone.

The pathogenesis of DKA is not based on an insulin deficiency alone.An increase in diabetogenic hormones plays a significant role.Glucagon, growth hormone, and epinephrine stimulate lipolysis, thus increasing the amount of free fatty acids available for ketone formation.Glucagon and epinephrine also stimulate hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, as well as inhibit insulin-mediated glucose uptake by cells, which contributes to exacerbation of hyperglycemia.One study showed that 5/7 dogs with DKA had detectable endogenous insulin levels, and two of these dogs had insulin concentrations within the normal range. Therefore, other hormones are significant contributors to the development of DKA.

While the initial formation of ketone bodies serves as a protective mechanism against cellular starvation, eventually their utilization for energy is decreased due to limited cellular uptake. When ketone bodies continue to form and their utilization decreases, they start to accumulate.Ketone bodies are strong acids and their accumulation can quickly lead to metabolic acidosis. Ketonuria and osmotic diuresis from glucosuria leads to loss of sodium, potassium, and water in urine. These losses contribute to dehydration, hypovolemia, and further accumulation of ketones and glucose in the blood. Nausea, vomiting, and anorexia occur from stimulation of the chemoreceptor trigger zone by ketonemia and hyperglycemia, and contribute to the dehydration. Marked electrolyte abnormalities ensue.

Many patients with DKA are newly diagnosed diabetics. In one study, 65% (82/127) of dogs with DKA were diagnosed at the time of initial discovery of DM.Approximately 70% of dogs and 90% of cats with DKA have concurrent diseases. Some of the most common concurrent diseases noted in dogs include hyperadrenocorticism, pancreatitis, and bacterial urinary tract infections.

The choice of therapy

Treatment includes the specific therapy and supportive therapy.(1)Specific therapy:

Goals of therapy are to correct fluid deficits; correct electrolyte abnormalities; provide insulin; correct acidosis; and identify and treat underlying causes and concurrent diseases.(2)Supportive therapyConcurrent illnesses must be identified and treated appropriately. Antibiotics are indicated if a urinary tract or other bacterial infection is present. Antinausea medications are administered as needed for recurrent vomiting. Analgesics may be considered for dogs with pancreatitis.

Monitoring

Patients with DKA initially require hospitalization and intensive monitoring. Blood glucose levels are evaluated q 1-2 hours at first, then q 4-6 hours. Alternatively, a continuous glucose monitoring system can be used.It is important to frequently assess blood glucose to ensure that hyperglycemia is not resolving too rapidly. A sudden decrease in blood glucose can lead to rapid changes in osmolality with neurologic complications. It is also important to ensure that hypoglycemia does not develop.

Electrolytes are evaluated at least 1-2 times daily and more frequently in patients with significant derangements.Vital parameters (e.g. temperature, pulse rate and quality, respiratory rate and effort, hydration status, mentation, urine output, body weight) are also assessed multiple times daily to ensure fluid therapy is adequate.Urine or serum ketones can be evaluated at least once daily to assess response to therapy and resolution of ketonemia/ketonuria.

Prognosis

In one study of 127 dogs treated for DKA, 70% survived to be discharged from the hospital.5 Median hospitalization duration was 6 days.Non-survivors had lower ionized calcium, hematocrit, and venous pH compared to survivors.It is important to communicate with owners that therapy for DKA typically requires several days of hospitalization, and that a long-term commitment is also needed to treat DM once the animal is discharged from the hospital.

Canine coronavirus diagnosis and treatment

Abstract

Canine coronavirus (CCV) is divided into gastrointestinal type and respiratory type. Canine gastrointestinal coronavirus disease is a highly contagious infectious disease characterized by canine gastroenteritis caused by coronavirus. It is clinically characterized by acute vomiting, diarrhea and dehydration. Canine respiratory coronavirus is different from enteritis-type coronavirus. It is common in the early stage of canine infectious respiratory disease, mainly invading the upper respiratory tract and causing mild respiratory symptoms. It is prone to mixed infection with other respiratory pathogens clinically. Sick dogs and virus-carrying dogs are the main sources of infection, and the transmission channel is fecal-oral transmission. The mortality rate is less than 10%. Most of the deaths are due to young age or poor body condition and no active treatment. Dehydration and anorexia cause death.
In this article, canine enteritis-type coronavirus infection is mainly treated with active treatment and the prognosis is good. The cases are arranged as follows.

1:Case information

1. Name: Seven Seven
2. Variety: Pomeranian
3. Age: 1 year old
4. Gender: Female
5. Visiting time: 2022.10.2

2:Medical history investigation

1. Treatment problems: vomiting, diarrhea, lack of energy, loss of appetite
2. Chief Complaint: Vomiting for 4 days, 3 times a day on average, vomit from chyme to yellow liquid, diarrhea, watery feces started 2 days ago, usually eating dog food and omnivorous food (meat, snacks, rice, etc.), before the onset After taking a bath, I didn’t blow it dry in time. I bought it and raised it at home for 2 months. I took a vaccine and dewormed it once. The probiotics fed 2 days ago did not improve, and the symptoms worsened.

3:Physical examination

1. Overall inspection
BCS 3/9, lean body condition, prolonged capillary refill time, poor skin tone
2. General inspection
BW: 2.2KG, T: 40℃, HR: 90 times/min RR: 24 times/min, MM: pale
3. System check
Auscultation of the heart rhythm is uniform, no obvious heart murmur, mild abdominal pain on palpation, yellow vomit attached to the mouth, dirty around the anus, dry hair, dehydration assessment 6.
4. Laboratory tests
Check items: blood routine, acute inflammation, stool routine, CPV/CCV antigen test

Blood Routine

Project

Test Result

Reference Range

WBC

13.20×10^9/L

6-16.9

LYM#

1.5×10^9/L

1.1-6.3

GRA#

11.70×10^9/L

3.30-12.00

RBC

5.2×10^12/L

5.50-8.50

HGB

10.9g/dl

12.0-18.0

HCT

34.1%

37.0-55.0

MCHC

32.0g/dl

30.0-36.9

PLT

435K/μL

175-550

Acute inflammation

Project

Test Result

Reference Range

CRP

121.3mg/L

<20mg/L

Routine Stool Examination
1.Floating method: no parasite eggs are seen
2.Fecal smears: Bacillus+++ Coccus+++ Yeast+

Canine Coronavirus Diagnosis and Treatment

Canine Coronavirus Diagnosis and Treatment

CPV/CCV antigen detection

Project

Test Result

Reference Range

CPV

0.00

CCV

+

8.60

Blood routine anemia,acute inflammation moderate to severe acute inflammation,a large number of bacteria in stool routine,CCV positive in CCPV antigen test,the diagnosis direction is canine coronavirus infection.

4:Diagnosis and treatment

1.Diagnosis:
Anemia,severe acute inflammation of the intestine, positive for CCV, diagnosed as anemia, positive for canine coronavirus.
2.Treatment plan:
The dogs had relatively severe symptoms of vomiting diarrhea,delayed medical treatment, poor overall body condition,and the immunization program had not yet been completed. In the pre-hospital treatment, the correction of dehydration, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory,anti-viral symptomatic treatment should consider.
3.Treatment prescription:

Day One
1:LRS 60ML+0.6ML KCL IV
2:5%GS 50ML+50%GS 2ML+ATP0.2ML+COA1/4 IV
3:0.9%NS 50ML+Omeprazole 4mg IV
4:Cerenia 0.22ML SC
5:IFN 120IU BID SC
6:Enrofloxacin Injection 0.22ML SC
7:Butorphanol 0.22ML SC
On the first day of hospitalization, food and water were fasted, body temperature and body weight were measured on time, the frequency of vomiting and diarrhea, and the shape and texture of secretions were recorded.

Day Two
Symptoms improved, no vomiting and diarrhea, mental appetite has not recovered, no stool, urination
1:LRS 30ML+KCL 0.3ML IV
2:5%G 40ML+50%GS 2ML+ATP0.22ML+COA1/4 IV
3:0.9%NS 40ML+Omeprazole 4mg IV
4: Cerenia 0.22ML SC
5: IFN 120IU BID SC
6: Enrofloxacin Injection 0.22ML SC
7: Butorphanol 0.22ML SC
8: CATOSAL 0.22ML

Day Three
Symptoms improved, no vomiting and diarrhea, mental appetite recovered, no stool, urination
1:LRS 50ML
2:0.9%NS 40ML+Omeprazole 4mg IV
3:Cerenia 0.22ML SC
4:IFN 120IU BID SC
5:Enrofloxacin Injection 0.22ML SC
6:Butorphanol 0.22ML SC
7:CATOSAL 0.22ML
8:Probiotics PO
9:Intestinal prescription pot PO
10:Blood Supplementing Liver Essence Oral Liquid

Day Four
No vomiting after eating
1:Cerenia 0.22ML SC
2:IFN 120IU BID SC
3:Enrofloxacin Injection 0.22ML SC
4:CATOSAL 0.22ML SC
5:Probiotics PO
6:Intestinal prescription pot PO
7:Intestinal prescription food PO
8:Nourishing Liver Essence Oral Liquid

Day Five
Normal appetite and bowel movements, no vomiting
1:IFN 120IU BID SC
2:Enrofloxacin Injection 0.22ML SC
3:CATOSAL 0.22ML SC
4:Probiotics PO
5:Intestinal prescription pot PO
6:Intestinal prescription food PO
7:Nourishing Liver Essence Oral Liquid

4. The course of treatment
After five days of treatment, the dog was significantly improved, and the spirit and appetite were basically restored in the hospital, and the urine and urination also returned to normal.

Canine Coronavirus Diagnosis and Treatment

5 Treatment Precautions
All communicable diseases require the owner to be informed in advance of death and complications. In the early stage of treatment, the physical condition and dehydration of the animal should be assessed, and the acid-base balance should be corrected in time to avoid the animal being in a critical state. Watch out for complications during treatment. The dose of antibiotics used in young animals must be strictly controlled to avoid adverse effects on the growth and development of animals due to the toxic and side effects of the drugs.

5:Precautions

Canine coronavirus infection is still a relatively common infectious disease in dogs whose immunization procedures have not been completed. After discharge from the hospital, they are mainly fed with intestinal prescription food and intestinal prescription canned food, and combined with probiotics to regulate the gastrointestinal tract and hyperimmune factors to enhance the body Resistance, do not take a bath and do not go out to play during this period, pay attention to keep warm, observe whether there is a recurrence of mental appetite, bowel movements and vomiting after stopping the drug, and return to the doctor one week later.

6:Prognosis

The sick dog was re-examined one week later, and there was no recurrence of the dog. All indicators were normal, and the coronavirus had recovered. In the later stage, it was necessary to complete the immunization program, deworm on time,and do good job in preventive management. Canine coronaviruses generally have a good prognosis with aggressive treatment.

7:Disease pathogenesis and prevention

After oral exposure to susceptible dog 2, the virus reaches the upper duodenum and mainly affects the digestion and absorption cells in 2/3 of the villi of the small intestine. The virus enters the enterocytes between the microvilli by pinocytosis, and is located in the cytoplasmic vacuoles. Buds on smooth membrane. Due to the rupture of the cell membrane, the virus enters the intestinal lumen with the shed infected cells, and then infects the villous epithelial cells of the entire intestinal segment of the small intestine, resulting in short and thick villi, loss of digestive enzymes and intestinal absorption, and vomiting. diarrhea. Subsequently, with the recovery of the structure of the small intestine, the clinical symptoms disappeared, the detoxification was reduced and terminated, and neutralizing antibodies were produced in the serum. At present, there are vaccines that can prevent canine coronavirus. When vaccinating dogs, it is recommended that pet owners choose infectious disease vaccines that are relatively comprehensive to prevent diseases. susceptible animals.

What is the better dog paw pad for your pets in 2022

What Is the Better Dog Paw Pad for Your Pets in 2022

Introduction

As a pet parent, you want only the best for your canine friend. But unfortunately, you have a few options regarding dog pad protection. In this article, we will compare the different types of paw protection available on the market and help you find the best one for your pet.
The three main types of dog foot protection are Wax, cream, and rubber. Each has its benefits and drawbacks.
With so many options on the market, it can take time to choose the right one for your pet. So keep reading to learn more about the different types of paw protectors and find the best one for your furry friend!

What Are Dog Paw Pads?

Paw pads are the tough, rubbery pads on the bottom of a dog’s feet. They provide insulation and traction and help protect your dog’s feet from hot or rough surfaces. Paw pads can vary in color, depending on the breed of dog, but are typically black or pink. Some dogs have webbing between their toes, which helps them swim.

How to protect dogs' paws

As a pooch owner, you want to do everything you can to keep your canine friend healthy and happy. That includes protecting their paws!
Keep their nails trimmed. Large and sharp nails can cause your dog pain and make it difficult for them to walk. Regularly trimming their nails will help keep them at a comfortable length.
Put booties on in cold weather. Just like us, dogs can get cold weather injuries on their paws. Putting some dog feet protectors on your dog when it’s cold outside can help protect its paws from the cold and prevent those injuries.
Be careful on hot pavement. Hot pavement can burn your dog’s paws, so be careful when walking them on hot days. Put booties on their paws or walk them on the grass to protect them.
Keep their paw pads clean. Dirt and debris can build up on your dog’s paw pads and irritate them. Keep them clean by wiping them down with a damp cloth or giving them a paw pad massage.
Check their paws regularly. Take a few minutes each week to check your dog’s paws for any cuts, cracks, or other injuries. If you find anything, take them to the vet to check it out.
Following these tips can help keep your dog’s paws healthy and protected.

What are dog Paw Pad Protections?

Dog paw protectors are products designed to protect your dog’s paws from the elements. It can include snow, ice, salt, and hot pavement. Paw protectors can be boots, socks, or even a thick layer of lotion.
Many different brands and types of paw protectors are available on the market, so it’s essential to do some research to find the best paw pads for dogs. Some factors to consider include the size and shape of your dog’s paws, the climate you live in, and your dog’s activity level.
If you’re looking for a paw protector, read the label carefully to ensure it is safe for your dog. Some paw pad protectants may contain compounds or other constituents that could be harmful to your pet.

How to Choose Better Dog Grass Pee Pads

Are Dog Paw Protectors Safe?

There are many paw protectants for dogs that claim to protect your dog’s paws, but are they really safe? Here’s what you need to know.
First, it’s essential to understand that not all paw protectors are created equal. Some are made from safe materials for your dog to walk on, while others are not. So be sure to read the labels carefully to make sure you’re getting a product that will be safe for your dog.
Second, even if a paw protector is made from safe materials, it’s essential to ensure it fits properly. If it’s too loose, your dog could slip out of it and hurt himself. If it’s too tight, it could cut off circulation to your dog’s paws.
Finally, remember that paw protectors are not a substitute for good care. Be sure to regularly check your dog’s paws for any cuts or other problems, and consult your veterinarian if you have any concerns.

Who Should Buy Dog Paw Protectors

If you want to keep your dog’s paws safe from the elements, then dog paw protectors are a great option. They can help to protect your dog’s paws from hot pavement, icy sidewalks, and sharp rocks or debris. Dog paw protectors are also suitable for dogs allergic to grass or sensitive feet. If you are trying to decide whether or not your dog needs paw protectors, talk to your veterinarian.

Dry Paws In Dogs

There are a few different things that can cause your dog’s paws to become dry and cracked. The most common cause is exposure to harsh weather conditions, like cold temperatures or strong winds. It can cause the paw pads to become dry and cracked, leading to other problems like frostbite.
Another cause of dry paws in contact with rough or abrasive surfaces! It can happen if your dog walks on concrete or asphalt or plays on uneven surfaces like sand or gravel. It can cause the paw pads to become dry, cracked, and calloused.
Finally, some dogs may be genetically predisposed to dry, cracked paw pads. It is more common in certain breeds, like Huskies and Malamutes. If you notice that your dog’s paw pads are always dry and cracked, even when they’re not exposed to harsh conditions or rough surfaces, it’s best to talk to your vet about it.
So, can you ignore dry, cracked paw pads? In most cases, no! If the paw pads are dry and cracked, you can try using a paw balm or cream to help moisturize them. But if the paw pads are severely dry and cracked or are bleeding or painful, it’s essential to take your dog to the vet. They may need medication or other treatment to heal the paw pads and prevent further damage.

Things to Look For Choosing the Better Dog Paw Pad

When it comes to choosing a suitable paw pad protector for your dog, there are a few things you’ll want to keep in mind.

  1. The material the paw pad protector is made from is essential. You’ll want to choose a durable material that will stand up to wear and tear and won’t irritate your dog’s skin.
  2. The size of the paw pad protector is also essential. Again, you’ll want to choose a size that will fit snugly around your dog’s paw without being too tight.
  3. The thickness of the dog paw pad covers is another important consideration. Again, you’ll want to choose a consistency that will provide adequate protection for your dog’s paw without being so thick that it’s uncomfortable.
  4. The style of the dog paw protection pads is also something to consider. Again, there are a variety of styles to choose from, so you’ll want to select one that you think your dog will be comfortable wearing.
  5. Finally, you’ll want to consider the price of the paw pad protector. You’ll want to choose a paw pad protector that is reasonably priced, so you only spend what you have to.

Best Paw Protection For Dogs In 2022

Are you looking for the best dog paw pads for your pet? Look no further than our top picks for 2022! From waterproof pads to ones that help with traction, we’ve got you covered.

LOOBANI Dog Paw Protector
  • ANTI SLIP UPGRADE: Add more traction spots-Loobani dog paw pad 2.0 adds more rubber area, which increases the contact area between the dog paw and the floor

  • PUT ON LIKE AIR: Most dogs refuse to wear boots or socks, and the dog grip pads with a thickness of only 0.04 inch will make your dog unable to feel its presence

  • EASY TO USE: The dog anti-slip pads are disposable and self adhesive.

  • SGS CERTIFIED SAFETY & BREATHABLE: Using a special hypoallergenic certified adhesive certified by the SGS International Inspection Agency

LOOBANI dog paw protector is made from high-quality material. It has anti-slippery and anti-tear features. The material of this product is very soft and comfortable for dogs to wear. LOOBANI Paw Protector will protect your dog’s paws from scratches, dirt, and rough surfaces. Foot protection for dogs in the snow!
LOOBANI Paw Protector is made from 100% premium quality material to last a long time. Moreover, this product is available in many sizes like small, medium, large, etc., so you can choose according to your pet’s size.
The waterproof dog paw protectors design allows easy removal by simply pulling on one end until it comes out of its protective coverings.
The dog paw covers come with a money-back guarantee so that if you are not satisfied with this product, you can return it within 30 days of receiving it without any questions!
You should know that LOOBANI Paw Protector is a great way to protect your pets’ paws from scratching furniture and other surfaces while running around or playing outside. These also worked as dog booties for hot weather.

Features

  • Item Size: S, M, L, XL, XXL
  • Rating: 4.5
  • Brand: LOOBANI
  • 6 sets 24 pads, 12 sets 48 pads

Pros

  • Affordable
  • Weightless on paw
  • Flexible size
  • Easy to apply
  • Protect in severe winters
  • Breathable, soft & adhesive
  • No mark on foot after use

Cons

  • One-use
EXPAWLORER Double Side Anti-Slip Dog Socks with Adjustable Straps
  • Double Side No-Skid: It’s their patent exclusive design, Double side and big area coverage adhesive provide strong extra traction

  • Durable Material: Made of elastic and comfortable material, It’s soft and Light, your dogs will easier to accept it.

  • Anti-Fall Off:Extra adjustable and detachable belt makes the socks keep stay on your lively and naught pet’s paw, never fall off easily.

Paw protection dog socks are dog foot pad covers made of high-quality, soft, comfortable, and breathable material. The paw protection dog socks are designed with a relaxed fit to prevent rubbing and chafing of your pet’s pads. It also provides the ideal padding to protect their paws from every day wear and tear.
EXPAWLORER Paw Protection dog foot covers are made of 100% polyester, durable, and easy to wash machine washable. In addition, the Paw Protection Dog Socks have a non-slip bottom that ensures that your pet will not slip or slide on the floor while wearing them. These are the booties to protect dogs’ feet from heat.
Each pair of dog paw covers for walking comes with an elasticized ankle strap that helps keep them securely around your dog’s leg or foot. The cuff is also adjustable to ensure a perfect fit every time.

Features

  • Size: S, M, L, XL, XXL
  • Rating: 4
  • Brand: EXPAWLORER 

Pros

  • Strong grip
  • Traction control
  • Protect in severe winters

Cons

  • Less durable
VALFRID Dog Paw Protector Anti-Slip Grips to Keeps Dogs from Slipping
  • MORE Breathable:because our fabric is breathable and non-slip,

  • RUGGED – Using a special hypoallergenic certified adhesive, made for Nano Environmental protection glue,have a rugged sole and high quality fabrics

  • GREAT FUNCTION – Keeps your dog’s paws clean and safe from slipping on floors or getting burned on hot pavement, etc

  • CONVENIENT: Dog Paw Protector keep paws dry and warm.
  • EASY TO USE – Trim your dog’s nails and hair between pads

The VALFRID Self-Adhesive Dog Paw Protector is an easy way to help keep your dog’s paws clean and healthy. This product is made from durable vinyl that will not tear, rip, or fray. The protector includes a self-adhesive backing that attaches to the bottom of your dog’s paw, ensuring that it stays in place during walks and playtime. In addition, its non-stick surface prevents dirt from sticking to it and makes it easy to remove after use.
The VALFRID paw protectors for dogs’ heat have been specifically designed for dogs that like to go outside with their owners but may have sensitive skin. These pads help prevent diseases from spreading through your home by keeping dirt away from your pet’s paws! It is an excellent product for people living in areas with lots of germs or children who may play with their pets without washing their hands afterward. It also makes a great gift idea for anyone who loves their pet but worries about their health and safety!

Features

  • Size: XL
  • Rating: 3.7
  • Brand: VERIFIED

Pros

  • Coziness
  • Protect in severe winters

Cons

  • Only one size is available
ROZU Dog Paw Protectors Anti Slip Pet Traction Pads Disposable Self
  • ENVIRONMENTAL MATERIAL: Be made of non-slip silicone and breathable cloth, the dog paw pads are non toxic and harmless

  • DOG PAW PROTECTOR: Dog paw pads for traction are anti-slip and anti-dirt, which protect pet paws from cold and hard floor in winter and from hot ground in summer

  • WALKING ASSISTANT: Self adhesive dog shoes help your puppies in walking and support old dogs stand, pain relief pet traction pads are suitable for senior dogs

The ROZU Dog Paw Protection Pads are a great way to protect your dog’s paws and protect dogs’ feet from heat. These pads can be worn on the feet or around the legs. Soft paw pads are made of lenient fabric and come in a range of colors. They are designed to absorb moisture, which helps prevent foot odor and prevents the development of blisters, soreness, and other foot problems. Dog foot protection boots are also used to protect dogs’ paws from heat.
The ROZU Dog Paw Protection Pads are also ideal for dogs that dislike wearing sandals or shoes. These dog paw protection pads are made from 100% cotton and are machine washable, so you can keep them clean and fresh. In addition, they come in many different sizes so that you can find the right fit for your pet’s paws.

Features

  • Size: XXXL
  • Rating: 3.4
  • Brand: ROZU

Pros

  • Disposable
  • Self-adhesive

Cons

  • Only size available
Paw Nectar Dog Paw Balm - Heals, Repairs & Restores Dry, Cracked & Damaged Paws
  • RELIEVE YOUR DOG’S PAIN: Paw Nectar paw butter will relieve your dog’s paw pain by repairing your dog’s underlying problem.

  • SHOW YOUR DOG YOU LOVE THEM: Your dog will be as happy as ever with his or her new soft paws. They will know that you love them because Paw Nectar is the highest quality organic.

  • NO WORRY IMMEDIATE RESULTS: Use Paw Nectar paw rescue cream and see results within days and in some cases, right away.

Paw Wax is a water-based organic paw wax that can be used on wet and dry paws. It’s non-toxic and safe for all pets, cats, and dogs.
The dog paw wax is a protector for small dogs made with natural ingredients to help keep your pet’s paws clean and healthy. It’s a petroleum-free product that’s also Paraben free and gluten-free.
Paw pad protector has no smell or taste, so you don’t have to worry about your pet rejecting it or getting anything into their mouth. The Wax comes in a convenient 2 Oz bottle that makes it easy to apply. It is a wax designed to help remove dead skin cells and dirt from your pet’s paws and protect dog paws from heat. This Wax can be used daily to help keep your pet’s paws soft and clean.
It keeps dogs dry by absorbing moisture. It prevents dog paws from getting wet when it rains or snows. It also helps keep dogs dry during the summer months by keeping their feet cool and warm at the same time. Paw Nectar Organic Paw Wax is the best paw protection for dogs in winter.
Paw Nectar Organic Paw Wax is non-toxic to dogs’ skin, so it doesn’t cause any harmful effects on their health, even if they lick it repeatedly. It is because the ingredients used in this product are all plant-based. In addition, the scent of the product is pleasant and not overpowering, which makes it ideal for use on dogs with sensitive noses.

Features

  • Item weight: 2 Ounce
  • Rating: 4.5
  • Brand: QualityPet

Pros

  • Easy to spread
  • Comfort
  • Protect in severe winters
  • Moisturizing

Cons

  • Greasy to paw 
Pet Head Oatmeal Natural Paw Butter 2oz
  • Oatmeal scented paw butter designed to deliver protection and comfort to dry, cracked paws

  • Wholesome and eco-friendly formula is pH balanced for cats and safe if licked or swallowed

  • Paw health promoted through use of paw butter

  • DRY, Cracked noses love paw butter too
  • Natural Oatmeal Paw Butter – soothes and relieves dry, cracked paws from hot or cold weather; it works on noses too!

 

Pet Head Oatmeal Natural Paw Butter is a light, fluffy cream to protect a dog’s paw, which helps to moisturize and soften dry, cracked feet. This rich formula contains Shea butter, oat protein, and vitamins A & E to help prevent dryness while nourishing deep down to the skin’s surface. Pet Head Oatmeal Natural Paw Butter may be used on all breeds of dogs and cats.
Pet Head Oatmeal Natural Paw Butter is an excellent product for your pet’s paws. It can be used as a moisturizer, exfoliate, and as base for homemade lotion. This natural paw butter is made from 100% all-natural ingredients. It helps to soften, moisturize, heal and help relieve dry skin on your dog’s paws. For best results, apply Pet Head Oatmeal Natural Paw Butter liberally on your feet once or twice daily.

Features

  • Item weight: 2 Oz
  • Rating: 4.5
  • Brand: PETHEAD

Pros

  • Easy to spread
  • Coziness
  • Easy to apply

Cons

  • Cumbersome packaging
  • Greasy

How to protect dogs' paws when running

Dogs are known for their running abilities – natural athletes built for sprinting and long-distance running. However, their paws are not as tough as we might think. In fact, without the proper protection, dogs’ paws can become injured when running on concrete or other hard surfaces.
Luckily, there are now protective foot covers for dogs available that can help protect dogs’ paws when running. These products range from special booties to paw balms and waxes. Using dog paw covers for heat can help keep your dog’s paws healthy and injury-free.
So if you’re a dog owner who likes to run with your furry friend, pick up some best dog paw protection for heat before hitting the pavement!

What is paw wax used for?

Paw wax is a product used to protect your dog’s paws from the elements. It contains various ingredients, including beeswax, Shea butter, and cocoa butter. Paw wax can be applied to your dog’s paws before they go outside to protect them from the cold, heat, and rough terrain. In addition, many dog owners use paw wax to prevent their nails from chipping and breaking.

Is paw wax suitable for dogs?

There is debate over whether paw wax is suitable for dogs. Proponents of paw wax argue that it can help protect your dog’s paws from the elements and injury. Others say that it can cause more harm than good, trapping dirt and debris in the Wax and making it difficult for your dog to walk. Ultimately, deciding whether to use paw wax on your dog is up to you. If you use it, choose a quality product and apply it sparingly.

Dog boots vs. Wax

Suppose you are debating whether to buy dog boots or Wax for your dog’s paw protection, dog paw wax vs. booties. We will compare and contrast the two products in terms of cost, effectiveness, and ease of use.
Pet paw covers are a popular option for paw protection, as they are relatively affordable and easy to put on. However, they are only sometimes effective, as they can rub and chafe the skin and may not stay on for long periods. On the other hand, Wax is more expensive, but it is also more effective, as it creates a barrier between the paw and the ground. Unfortunately, it is also more challenging to apply, as it must be melted and then applied to the paw.
So, which is the better option? It depends on your needs and preferences. If you are looking for a paw protection

How to protect dogs' paws in hot weather

Dogs are susceptible to burns on their paws from hot pavement, sidewalks, and even sand. To protect your dog’s paws, try these simple tips:

  • Put rubber paw covers for dogs on your dog’s feet before walking on hot surfaces.
  • Keep walks short and avoid hot surfaces during the day’s hottest hours.
  • Put cool, wet towels on your dog’s paws after walks
  • Apply pet-safe sunscreen to your dog’s paws before going outside

Following these tips can help keep your dog’s paws safe and comfortable during hot weather.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the best dog paw pads for your pets in 2022 are the ones that are made of durable, non-toxic materials. They should also be able to provide good traction and be easy to clean. When choosing paw pads for your dog ensure to pick a size that will fit them comfortably and not impede their movement.

A canine distemper infection diagnosis and treatment report

Abstract

Infected by canine distemper virus (CDV), canine distemper is a highly contagious infectious disease that can affect not only canines but also a variety of wild animals such as raccoons, skunks, foxes, ferrets and big cats animals (such as lions). Symptoms of canine distemper infection are the respiratory, gastrointestinal, urothelial, central nervous system, and optic nerves. The disease is common in areas with low vaccine coverage, so it can occur globally. In this case, the dog has respiratory symptoms, and I’ll talk about how to diagnose and treat canine distemper infection to give you a better understanding of the disease.

Key words: canine distemper infection, diagnosis, pneumonia.

1.Before therapy

Name: WangWang
Breeds: Border Collie
Age: 4 months old
Sex: Male(no castrate)
History: No

Main problem by the owner
The dog was bought from a kennel and the director fed it at home for two weeks. The owner found it coughed, sneezed, and had a runny nose yesterday, then became depressed, lost appetite, and had diarrhea. This is the first time the owner has fed the dog, and there is no other dog history. The dog has no complete vaccination history (the first dose of Vanguard® Plus 5 was given a month ago) and no deworming history.

2 .Physical examination

The patient in this case was depressed, with pale and dry oral mucosa, arrhythmia, rapid breathing, and a large amount of purulent secretions. The basic physiological body temperature was 39.9°C, the inferred hyperthermia, the heart rate was 120 beats/min, and the respiratory rate was 20 beats per minute. Capillary refill time (CRT) normal (<2s), with a body weight of 2 kg and a moisture assessment of 8%. A small amount of discharge was found in both ears. Lymph nodes were palpated without significant swelling or pain. Induce a positive cough reflex. There was no obvious abdominal response to abdominal palpation. 

A canine distemper infection diagnosis and treatment report

3.Laboratory examination

3.1 completed blood count(CBC)

Form 1 Complete Blood Count(CBC)result【BC-2600Vet(Mindray)】

Project

Result

Reference range

WBC

6.8×103/uL

6.0~17.0

Lymph#

2.4×103/uL

0.8~5.1

Mon#

0.3×103/uL

0.0~1.8

Gran#

4.1×103/uL

4.0~12.6

Lymph%

35.2%

12.0~30.0

Mon%

4.7%

2.0~9.0

Gran%

60.1%

60.0~83.0

RBC

5.43×1012/uL

5.5~8.5

HGB

109g/L

110~190

HCT

36.7%

39.0~56.0

MCV

64.6fL

62.0~72.0

MCH

20pg

20.0~25.0

MCHC

197g/L

300~380

RDW

13.1%

11.0~15.5

PLT

836×109/uL

117~460

MPV

8fL

7.0~12.9

PDW

18.1

 

PCT

0.668%

 

Eos%

1.9%

 

3.2 CRP test

The resulT of CRP testing【AnigenV2000】

Project

Result

Reference Range

CRP

36.61mg/L

<0.5

3.3 Infectious disease sample testing

Examination for infectious diseases【AnigenV2000】

Project

Result

Reference Range

CDV-AG

52.6

<1

CIV-AG

0.3

<1

3.4 X-ray examination

A canine distemper infection diagnosis and treatment report

 

 

Picture 1 Increased bronchial markings in dog with bronchitis – VD radiograph

Picture 2 Increased bronchial markings in dog with allergic bronchitis – lateral radiograph

A canine distemper infection diagnosis and treatment report

4.Diagnosis: canine distemper infection

4.1 Here are the Introduction of the diagnosis methods

Complete blood count: Severe leukopenia is common. Other potential findings include anemia, thrombocytopenia, mononucleosis, and neutropenia.
Biochemical profile: results are normal or variable.Hyperphosphatemia, hypoalbuminemia, and hypoalbuminemia have been reported.
Serology: Antibody titer tests can indicate the presence or absence of protective levels of antibodies against CDV, and in-house test kits are available and reliable. 15,17 Antibody testing helps determine the protection status of previously vaccinated dogs, where vaccination may pose a risk, and helps determine immunity in dogs entering shelters. Please note that for 17 antibody tests, negative titers do not indicate sensitivity. Some immunized dogs may have undetectable antibody levels but are able to mount an appropriate response when exposed to CDV. Internal testing may not accurately distinguish between maternal immunity and innate immunity in 4-6 month old dogs, but 17 IgM levels can be detected in acute cases of canine distemper. It may be present for up to 3 weeks after vaccination with CDV. IgG titers are nonspecific. Elevated IgG titers may indicate current infection, previous infection, or previous vaccination.
Cytology: CDV cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions are occasionally found in cells on stained peripheral blood smears or conjunctival swabs/scraps. Inclusion bodies are single, oval, gray bodies up to 3 µm in diameter. Inclusion bodies are more common in lymphocytes and epithelial cells, less common in neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils and red blood cells. The erythrocyte inclusion bodies are eccentric, round and light blue.
Radiography: Alveolar or interstitial patterns are common in chest radiographs of dogs with pneumonia. Radiographic changes consistent with hypertrophic osteodystrophy may also be noted.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis: In the setting of acute, non-inflammatory encephalomyelitis, CSF analysis may be normal. In chronic CDV encephalomyelitis, elevated protein levels (>25 mg/dL) and cell counts (>10 cells/µL, mainly lymphocytes) are possible and inclusion bodies can be found in the cells. CDV antibody levels can be measured in CSF. Antibody levels in the CSF were not increased in vaccinated dogs or in dogs with systemic disease without CNS infection. However, antibody levels may increase secondary to blood contamination during CSF collection.
Autopsy: Possible pathological changes include diffuse interstitial pneumonia, enteritis, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, thymic atrophy, poliomyelitis, leukoencephalomyelitis, demyelination, neuronal degeneration, and myelin degeneration.
Virus isolation: CDV is difficult to isolate from conventional cell cultures.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing: PCR testing is a highly specific method for diagnosing CDV. PCR testing can be performed on whole blood, conjunctival swabs, buffy coat smears, and urine sediment. Using a cutoff of 107903 viral particles can help real-time PCR differentiate vaccine interference from wild-type infection. PCR assays are 30% more sensitive than immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) assays in diagnosing CDV.
IFA test: IFA tests can be performed on the conjunctiva, tonsils, respiratory tract, and genital epithelium. Antigens can also be detected in urine sediment and buffy coat samples. Note that immunofluorescence is usually only positive for the first 3 weeks after infection in conjunctival and urothelial samples. Buffy coat samples are usually positive 2-5 days after infection, after which antigen levels begin to decline 8-9 days after infection. CDV persists for at least 60 days in uveal tissue, CNS tissue, skin samples, and footpads.
Immunochromatography: Conjunctival swabs have been subjected to immunochromatography using two anti-CDV antibodies. This assay has higher sensitivity and specificity compared to nested PCR assays. Results from nasal swabs and peripheral blood lymphocyte samples were less sensitive and specific than PCR assays.
Other tests: Virus neutralization and hemagglutination inhibition are the gold standards for accurate detection of CDV antibody protection levels.

4.2 Analysis of this case

In this case, the differential diagnosis was based on clinical signs, physical examination and laboratory tests, including viral infectious diseases (such as CDV or CIV), bacterial infectious diseases and some parasitic diseases. Complete blood count (CBC) and CRP tests showed acute to moderate inflammation. The X-ray and lateral films of VD inferred that the inflammation was caused by bronchitis, which is one of the typical symptoms of canine distemper infection. In addition, the vaccine history in this case is not of our concern, the dogs tested for CDV and CIV infection, and the CDV test was positive and CIV negative. Therefore, we initially diagnosed that the dog was infected with canine distemper. In addition canine distemper is sometimes associated with other systemic infections (eg, leptospirosis, canine hepatitis, rabies, canine respiratory disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever). So PCR is an important tool to help us make an accurate diagnosis.

A canine distemper infection diagnosis and treatment report

5.Treatment

5.1 SPECIFIC THERAPY

There is currently no specific therapy for CDV, and management is primarily supportive. Ribavirin, an antiviral drug that inhibits CDV replication in vitro, has not been thoroughly evaluated in infected dogs. This requires further research.

5.2 SUPPORTIVE THERAPY

Fluid therapy (IV, SC) may be required to correct dehydration and replace ongoing losses. Coupage and nebulization may be beneficial for bronchopneumonia. CDV pneumonia is often complicated by secondary bacterial infection and may also require treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Antibiotic therapy may be required for several weeks, or as a combination therapy. Antiemetic therapy is indicated for patients with vomiting. Dexamethasone can be administered once intravenously at a dose of 1-2 mg/kg to temporarily stop neurological signs associated with cerebral edema. Anticonvulsant therapy is indicated for seizures. Diazepam (5-10 mg IV or rectally) and other drugs can be used to treat status epilepticus. Phenobarbital (10-20 mg/kg IV once effective, then 2-8 mg/kg PO q 12 hours) or other anticonvulsants can be used for acute and maintenance therapy.

RX:
1) Ampicillin: 20 mg/kg PO, IV, SC q8h
2) Interferon: 100IU/kg s.c q24h
3) Anti-CDV protein: 100IU/kg s.c q24h
4) Lactated Ringer + 0.9%NaCl 1:1:60mg/kg/d ivgtt
After 1 week of treatment, the dog’s symptoms were controlled. After 3 weeks of treatment, the dog recovered and the owner took him home.

6.Conclusion

Most of us have heard of canine distemper infection in dogs and thought it was bad. The basic vaccine for dogs is often referred to as the “canine distemper vaccine,” although it also covers several infections in addition to canine distemper. Fortunately, this is the canine distemper that most people have heard of. Thankfully, first-hand experience of this dreaded disease has become limited due to widespread vaccination. However, if you are reading this, you may have a dog suspected of having this dreaded infection. A typical canine distemper suspect is a rescue or pet store dog or puppy, often with a suspicious vaccination history or an uncompleted vaccination series. Dogs or puppies are housed with other rescue dogs or a group of dogs/puppies that are transported together. Symptoms begin with:
Respiratory signs are more common, and mild canine distemper may present with lethargy, decreased appetite, fever, cough, dyspnea, and serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge. Fever can appear 3-6 days after infection, with a second peak a few days later. More severe clinical illness usually occurs in immunocompromised puppies. Fever, runny nose, serous to mucopurulent conjunctivitis cough, dyspnea, vomiting, diarrhea, tenesmus, weight loss, and dehydration may occur. Secondary bacterial infection can worsen the clinical presentation. Neurologic manifestations may appear 1-3 weeks after systemic disease or may occur concurrently with systemic disease. Neurological signs may be acute or chronic and are usually progressive. Possible clinical abnormalities include hyperesthesia, cervical stiffness, vestibular signs, seizures, ataxia, cerebellar signs, paraparesis, tetraparesis, and myoclonus (ie, involuntary rhythmic muscle twitching). Ophthalmic and dermatological findings may also be reported.
Diagnosis and treatment have been covered before, so here I will emphasize monitoring and prognosis to the reader. Antibody titer testing can be used to determine whether enough circulating antibodies are present to prevent CDV infection. Prognosis depends on the virus strain and the immune response of the host. 3 Nervous system signaling is the most important factor affecting prognosis. The prognosis for dogs with neurological signs is considered poor. The reported mortality rate is about 50%. Older dogs with an adequate immune response may be asymptomatic or mildly diseased. Puppies or puppies with an insufficient immune response tend to develop more severe disease. Dogs recovering from CDV may be long-term immune to reinfection and may be immune for life.
Finally, I’ll talk about how to prevent it. Control is accomplished through vaccination. Current vaccines include strains of American ancestry (Onderstepoort or Lederle strains). Immunity can last for years after recovery from a natural infection or after a booster vaccination. CDV vaccination can start as early as 6-8 weeks of age with booster immunizations every 2-4 weeks until at least 16 weeks of age. In puppies or adult puppies vaccinated after maternal immunity has weakened (approximately 16 weeks of age), a single live or recombinant vaccine should be sufficient for protection. In vaccinated older dogs, canine distemper vaccination is recommended annually or every three years, depending on the risk of infection. Customer education about purchasing puppies from crowded pet markets is important. CDVs are susceptible to UV light, heat, drying and all commonly used disinfectants. No vaccine is 100% effective, but regular vaccinations can help protect animals.

A diagnostic and treatment of canine acute pancreatitis

Abstract

Pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas. A female,pomeranian dog was presentd with sign of depression and vomiting of 3 days duration following episode of dietary indiscretion.Clinical signs,previous medical history, and diagnostic test supported diagnosis acute pancreatitis. Specific and supportive treatment was instituted,and clinical signs resolved 3 days after presentation.
Key words:Vomiting,Pain management,shock

1. Bases information

A diagnostic and treatment of canine acute pancreatitis

Name: BAI BAI
Breed: Pomeranian dog
Sex: Female (castrated)
Age: 3 years old
Body weight: 3.7kg
History: Dietary habit with meat and mankind food for a long tern

2. Before therapy

A diagnostic and treatment of canine acute pancreatitis

At the first visit, the dog began to show symptoms of lethargy and weakness, especially weakness in the pelvis and limbs, and would not fall over after walking more than a few steps. The owner noticed it was vomiting and it has gotten worse recently. The day before the examination, Bai Bai had no appetite at all and took her to the hospital. Completed a vaccine history check and found it was not dewormed this year.

3. Physical examination