Heat stroke often occurs in hot summer weather, and is also known as heat exhaustion clinically. According to the cause, it includes sunstroke and heat stroke. Sun exposure refers to a disease in which animals are exposed to direct sunlight on their heads in hot seasons, causing meningeal hyperemia and acute brain parenchyma lesions, resulting in serious obstruction of the central nervous system. Heat stroke is a disease that causes severe central nervous system dysfunction due to excessive heat accumulation in animals in a humid and hot environment. The disease is characterized by markedly elevated body temperature, respiratory and circulatory disturbances, and neurological symptoms.
Gender: male dog (castrated)
The owner went to the doctor on September 10 and complained that the sick animal, Huanhuan, went to the beauty shop for bathing and styling yesterday. When he was picked up in the evening, he found that he was sluggish, did not eat or drink, and had vomiting and bloody stools in the early morning of this day. There is no other medical history, and the history of deworming and immunization is complete.
It can be seen that the dog is obese, depressed, sunken eyes, dry nose, salivation, palpation body surface temperature is higher than normal, skin rebound time is prolonged, and it is impossible to stand and walk. Complete history of immunization and deworming. Body temperature (rectal temperature): 41°C, weight: 30kg, heart rate 119 beats/min, rapid breathing, CRT=2s, red tongue.
WBC（White Blood Cell Count）
RBC（Red Blood Cell Count）
MCV（Mean Corpuscular Volume）
MCH（Mean Erythrocyte Hemoglobin Content）
MCHC（Mean Erythrocyte Hemoglobin Concentration）
OTHR%（Other Cell Percentage）
PCO2（Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure）
HCO3-（Bicarbonate ion concentration）
tCO2（Total Carbon Dioxide Content）
Combined with clinical features such as acute onset and laboratory test results, a preliminary diagnosis of heatstroke was made
- Physical cooling: place the dog in an air-conditioned place, spray alcohol on the body surface, the soles of the feet, and place ice packs on the abdomen, armpits, and neck
- Lactated Ringer’s solution：145mL/h *24h
- Synulox：20mg/kg s.c
During the treatment, the body temperature was closely monitored. When the body temperature returned to 39.5°C, the patient was transferred to the hospital for observation. The next day, the body condition improved. After communicating with the owner, take it home for nursing.
6.Analysis and discussion
In animals with elevated body temperature, the causes include heat stroke, infectious diseases, immune-mediated diseases, poisoning, and tumors. Combined with the current season, animal species, consultation and the disease show more typical clinical characteristics. In summer, sick animals often suffer from heat dissipation barriers in the body due to long modeling time during grooming, until they have clinical symptoms such as vomiting after returning home.
Heatstroke is an emergency in clinical practice. After the initial diagnosis of heatstroke, it is necessary to prepare for emergency treatment in time, including emergency medicine, establishment of intravenous access, and monitoring of physical signs. Doctors also need to communicate the risk with the owner. The prognosis is generally good when the disease is detected early, but it can lead to sepsis or even multiple organ failure and death in the long course of the disease.
Physical examination showed that the animal was depressed, body temperature (rectal temperature): 41 ℃, dehydration; laboratory examination showed increased HCT in the blood routine, which was consistent with the dehydration in the physical examination. Due to the acute attack of the disease, it may lead to leukocyte inflammation There was no obvious abnormality in the indicators. In other cases, CRP, a more sensitive inflammatory indicator, could be added for monitoring. Biochemical examination showed that ALT and AST liver enzymes were elevated, indicating that there was cell damage in the body, which may be caused by heat exhaustion. In blood gas and electrolyte analysis, serum potassium is often decreased in the early stage of heat stroke, and serum potassium is increased in the late stage, and metabolic acidosis, but no obvious abnormality was found in this examination.
The main principles of treatment are hypothermia and cardiovascular support. The goal of body temperature cooling is to drop to normal body temperature. In this case, conventional physical cooling methods were used. Alcohol and ice compresses were used to promote the animal to dissipate heat. In view of dehydration and a history of vomiting, if there is no obvious abnormality in electrolytes, routine lactated Ringer’s infusion is performed according to the maintenance dose of 60 mL/kg and 8% dehydration in large dogs to correct the dehydration. In addition, the antibiotic Solenol was administered subcutaneously at a conventional dose of 20 mg/kg to prevent secondary bacterial infection.
Because this case was discovered early and received timely treatment, the spirit of the dog recovered after one day of hospitalization. In addition, there was no obvious abnormality in the liver and kidney indicators in the laboratory examination. After communicating with the owner, it was brought home for treatment. Nursing, but still need to increase the appropriate temperature at home, give drinking water regularly to observe their mental status.
Canine sweat glands are underdeveloped and only present in the foot pads. For Samoyed breeds, their hair is thicker and their tolerance to heat itself is weak, and they cannot effectively dissipate heat through breathing in a sultry environment for a long time. At the same time, rapid breathing will also take away a lot of water, resulting in the occurrence of heat stroke. . The manifestations of heat stroke are usually increased body temperature, shortness of breath, a large amount of salivation, and neurological symptoms may also occur. Initially, the animals may be excited, restless, insane, and then ataxia, lying on the ground, confusion, and heart failure as the disease worsens. , Mucosal cyanosis, mouth, nosebleed secretions, muscle spasms, convulsions and even acute death.
For heat stroke diseases, pet owners need to increase their awareness of prevention. In the hot and hot season, you should do a good job of preventing heatstroke and cooling, and you need to keep the indoor ventilation, and the temperature is suitable. Avoid walking the dog at noon, try to choose morning and evening walks, and give appropriate and clean drinking water before going out, but avoid giving ice water directly, so as not to stimulate the heart. For dog breeds with strong and thick hair, such as Chow Chow, Alaskan and Samoyed, the hair on the body surface should be shortened in time, especially the hair in the foot pads, which will help the foot pads to dissipate heat. Short-nosed dog breeds such as myna and bullfighting are also prone to heat stroke.
When symptoms of heat stroke occur, it is necessary to take cooling measures immediately. The options include (1) timely remove the clothing or shoulder straps on the animal (2) immediately move to a cool and ventilated place, and keep the environment quiet (3) give cool drinking water (4) ) Wipe the body surface with alcohol, and apply cold compresses (5) enema (6) drugs to cool down. In some materials, the method of cold water enema is used, but this method is not recommended. It is recommended to use normal temperature water enema. This is because it is not easy to control the speed of lowering the body temperature, and beware of shock caused by the rapid drop in body temperature.